Punjab-Nankana Sahib

Introduction

Nankana Sahib district is part of the Rechna Doab[1] area of Punjab. It is located between 31° 0Ꞌ to 31° 47Ꞌ north latitudes and 73° 15Ꞌ to 74° 07Ꞌ east longitudes. The district was part of Sheikhupura district till 2005. It is bounded on the north by Hafizabad district, and on the east by Sheikhupura district, while the southern border is shared by 3 districts: Lahore, Kasur, and Okara, and the western border is shared by Faisalabad district.

District at a Glance

Name of District Nankana Sahib District
District Headquarter Nankana Sahib City
Population[2] 1,356,374 persons
Area[3] 2,720 km2
Population Density[4] 489.0 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[5] 1.4%
Male Population[6] 51.0%
Female Population[7] 49.0%
Urban Population[8] 18.1%
Tehsils 03 tehsils:

1.    Nankana Sahib Tehsil

2.    Shahkot Tehsil

3.    Sangla Hill Tehsil

Main Towns Nankana Sahib, Shahkot, Kali Bair, Syedwala Town, More Khunda, Khairpur Bhattian, Waseerpur, Dhoor Kot, Kot Hussain Khan Bhatti, Rehanwala, Nawankot, Bulaki Kalan, Kalanaur (Raisanwala), Mangu Tara, Basedpur, Youngsonabad, Bucheki, Darbarkot, Burj Bibi, Sangla Hill, Warburton, Khanqah Dogran, and Burkhurdar
Literacy Rate[9] 66%
Male Literacy Rate[10] 75%
Female Literacy Rate[11] 59%
Major Economic Activity[12] Agriculture with its allied livestock breeding, fishing, hunting 29.6%

 

Construction 37.5%
Manufacture 9.5%
Wholesale/Retail, Restaurant/Hotel 6.7%
Community, Social & Personal Services 8%
Transport, Communication & Storage 3.2%
Others 5.5%
Main Crops Sugarcane, wheat, rice, maize, jowar, bajra, cotton, gram moong, maash, masoor, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, groundnut, guar seed, sesanum, linseed, sunn hemp, castor seed, millet, fodder, and tobacco
Major Fruits Guava, citrus, mango, banana, leechee, jaamun, phalsa, ber, mulberry, melon, musk melon, and watermelon
Major Vegetables Potatoes, cauliflower, carrots, onions, tomatoes, turnips, peas, chilies, garlic, sugarbeet, coriander, turmeric, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, radish, cucumber, cabbage, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, yams, water chestnut, and brinjals
Forests (area)[13] 1,000 HA[14]
Total Black Topped Road[15] 1,951.0 km
National Highways[16] – km
Motorways[17] – km
Provincial Roads[18] 1,808.4 km
Sugar Cess Roads[19] 142.6 km
No. of Grid Stations[20] 09 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[21] 30 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 7,822 lines
Industrial Estates[22] No industrial estate but 151 small, medium & large enterprises in the district.
Industrial Units[23] Rice Mills 109 units
Textile Spinning 18 units
Flour Mills 4 units
Soaps & Detergents, Power Generation and Textile Weaving 3 units each
Sugar and Woolen Textile Spinning/Weaving 2 units each
Chemicals, Chip/Straw Board, Cold Storage, Cotton Ginning & Pressing, Food Products, Industrial Machinery, Textile Processing 1 unit each
Household Size[24] 6.7 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[25] 18.7%[26]
Houses with Electricity[27] 81.9%[28]

Table 1.1 Nankana Sahib District at a Glance

[1] Rechna Doab is the area between rivers Ravi and Chenab

[2] 2017 Census

[3] 1998 Census (Nankana Sahib tehsil); 2017 census uses spatial data.

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] 2017 Census

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[10] PSLM

[11] PSLM

[12] 1998 Census (Nankana Sahib tehsil); 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[13] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[14] Land Utilization Statistics also report 1,000 HA under forests.

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[20] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Nankana Sahib District 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Nankana Sahib District 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Nankana Sahib District 2012; Latest available.

[23] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Nankana Sahib District 2012; Latest available.

[24] 1998 Census (Nankana Sahib tehsil); 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census (Nankana Sahib tehsil) ; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[26] Same as Sheikhupura District; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[27] 1998 Census (Nankana Sahib tehsil) ; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[28] Same as Sheikhupura District; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage/ Historical Buildings and Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

The district is named after its headquarter town, Nankana Sahib, which, in turn, is named after the founder of the Sikh religion, Baba Guru Nanak. Guru Nanak was born in a small village called Talwandi in the district on 15 April 1469. The district, in its current form, was constituted in 2005.

At the time of the partition of India in 1947, the district was part of Sheikhupura district and thus, its early history is the same as Sheikhupura, the details of which have been recounted in the chapter on Sheikhupura. Here, the history of areas comprising the Nankana Sahib district is being recounted.

Talwandi is said to have been built by a Hindu Raja, Vairat, who called the town Raipur. It is believed that the area was destroyed by a fire. During the early parts of the 15th century, the Lodhi Pathans ruled while based in Delhi, and they divided Punjab among the Muslim warrior clans in exchange for peace. One of these chiefs was Rai Bhoe Bhatti, a Muslim of the Bhatti Rajput tribe. Rai Bhoe, along with his son Rai Bhullar, salvaged Talwandi, restored it, and became ruler of the area. The area was, thus, known as Rai-Bhoe-Di-Talwandi (or Rai Bhoe’s Talwandi).[1] After his death, Rai Bhullar succeeded him, and became the ruler of Talwandi. It was during his regime, in 1469, that Guru Nanak was born; for his first 15 or 16 years, Nanak lived in the city, and was educated here. Once he became the founder of the Sikh religion, the town was renamed Nanak Ayan (the home of Nanak). After Nanak became famous, the town was again renamed, and was called Nankana Sahib (Sahib being a Persian epithet of respect).

Nankana Sahib is a town with many Gurdwaras (Sikh temples), the most important of which is Nanak’s Ayan, also called Janam Asthan, or birthplace of Nanak Sahib.

As described already, the first 15 or 16 years of Guru Nanak’s life were spent at Talwandi. In 1484,[2] he shifted to Sultanpur Lodhi, in present day Kapurthala district of Punjab (India), where his sister Bibi Nanaki lived. From there he set out on his long preaching odysseys, visiting his parents at Talwandi only now and then; his last visit to his birthplace was in 1510.

Historic Revenue Records, currently in possession of the Bhatti family, show that Rai Bhullar granted Guru Nanak a large land area as his estate. The land granted to Guru Nanak by Rai Bhullar Bhatti is still being held under a Gurdwara trust to be used for the upkeep of the numerous Gurdwaras in Nankana Sahib. Guru Nanak, however, did not stay long at Talwandi and left for his second missionary tour (1510 AD-1515 AD) towards the Deccan peninsula. During this tour, he visited many Buddhist and Jain temples and went as far as Ceylon (present day Sri Lanka), where he met Raja Shivnabh of Sangla-Deep.

The areas belonging to Nankana Sahib have a longer history than the history of the Sikh religion, however. A mound called Dhaular (Royal Palace) bears testimony to this. This mound spreads over approximately half a million square yards and is located less than half a kilometer from the town of Nankana Sahib. It has traces of ancient habitation not only at the top but also at its foot. On its north is a very old drinking-water well called Sitawali, with deep drawn out stairs built in heavy lime masonry. These stairs lead to its spring water level for providing water. This well bears testimony to the antiquity of the mound; it is presumed that the area was the territory of some Hindu Kings, one of whose princesses must have been called Sita as the well is called Sitawali. General rise of the spring’s level in these areas has hidden the stairs now. Another equally old well, to the east of the mound called Bala Wala well, appears to have derived its name from Bala, a contemporary of Guru Nanak.

The next historical reference to Nankana Sahib is for 1818 to 1819, when Maharaja Ranjit Singh came to the region after conquering Multan. The Maharaja ordered the construction of several memorial buildings called Gurdwaras. The Maharaja stayed in Nankana Sahib as a guest of Rai Bhullar’s descendants and learnt about the large land grant given to Guru Nanak’s followers by the Bhatti Rajput family. He added an additional land grant of approximately 20,000 acres to this grant for the maintenance of the Gurdwaras and for their Guru da Langar (Guru’s free kitchen). This additional grant of land, when added to the several thousand acres originally granted by Rai Bular Bhatti to Guru Nanak and his followers, made the job of Mahants (clergymen) and Pujaris (pilgrims) extremely lucrative, and resulted in the Mahants’ firm hold over the Gurdwaras.

Several shrines in the town, raised after Guru Nanak’s death, mark the places where he was born, where he played with other children, where he studied and where he tended his father’s cattle. The entire area was annexed by the British in 1849 after the Second Anglo Sikh war.

By the early 20th century, a number of Sikh Gurdwaras in British India were under the control of the Udasi Mahants (clergymen) or managers appointed by the Governors of the British Government. These clergymen became powerful and ritualized. A movement called Akali Dal was started in the region, with the main aim of getting Sikh Gurdwaras released from the control of the traditional clergy and to reform them.

In 1921, the Akalis turned their focus to the Gurdwara at Nankana Sahib, the birthplace of the first Sikh, Guru Nanak. The Gurdwara was under the control of a Mahant called Narain Das, who was a corrupt man, allowing immoral activities within and outside the temple premises, including the rape of a Hindu devotee’s 13-year old daughter by a few of the clergymen at the Gurdwara. When the Akalis tried to take over the Gurdwara on 20 February 1921, the guards of the Mahant attacked them, killing 130 people in what came to be known as the Nankana Massacre. Two days later, Mahatma Gandhi and the Governor of the Punjab province visited the site, accompanied by a number of Sikh and Hindu leaders, in a show of support and sympathy.

The British Government, finding itself under immense political pressure, agreed to transfer the control of the Gurdwaras to the Akalis on 3 March 1921. Narain Das and 26 of his henchmen were arrested and later sentenced to death and the Janam Asthan[3] was cordoned off with the help of a huge military force. The keys of the Gurdwara were later handed over to the Sikhs. In 1926, a Local Committee for the Management of the Sikh Gurdwara of Nankana Sahib was duly constituted under Section 85 of the Sikh Gurdwaras Act. It consisted of 13 members elected by the districts of Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Lyallpur (now Faisalabad), Lahore and the town of Nankana Sahib, and 5 members nominated by the central Sikh committee known as Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee with its head office at Amritsar. An amendment made in the Act in 1943 placed the central committee in charge of these Gurdwaras, retaining the Local Committee as an advisory body. The Local Committee during its 17 years regime renovated some of the Gurdwara buildings, and raised a marble memorial within the Janam Asthan compound in honor of the Sikhs killed and burnt there in 1921.

The first annual fair attended by about 150,000 people was held at Nankana Sahib in November 1926 and another smaller one on the 20th of February 1927 in memory of the martyrs of 1921.

Each year thousands of Sikhs from all over the world visit the sacred Gurdwaras of Nankana Sahib, particularly those at the birthplace, and at the location of Guru Nanak’s death and burial.

Nankana Sahib was formerly a tehsil of Sheikhupura district. In May 2005, the provincial government decided to raise the status of Nankana Sahib to that of a district as a means of promoting development in the area.

Figure 1.3 Gurdwara Darbar Sahib, Katarpur, Nankana Sabib

Figure 1.4 Tomb of Rai Bhullar Bhatti, Nankana Sahib

Figure 1.5 The Jand Tree on which Sikh Leader Lachman Singh was Hanged

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Nankana Sahib district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly[4] 4
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 5

Under the Local Government and Community Development Nankana Sahib district has 1 District Council and 4 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Nankana Sahib
  • Shahkot
  • Sangla Hill
  • Warburton

Administrative Divisions

Nankana Sahib district covers an area of 2,720 km2 and was originally subdivided into 3 tehsils as follows:

Nankana Sahib Tehsil 37 Union Councils
Shahkot Tehsil 09 Union Councils
Sangla Hill Tehsil 11 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Nankana Sahib Administrative Divisions

[1] Information drawn from “Historical Gurdwaras of Nankana, Pakistan” Religion & Spirituality on About.com

[2] The Encyclopedia of Sikhism

Heritage/Historical Buildings, and Tourist Attractions 

Nankana Sahib is considered to be a sacred and holy site for the Sikh religion as it is the birthplace of the Sikh religion’s founder, Guru Nanak. It is a popular place for Sikh pilgrims who arrive from all over the world. The district is home to a large number of Sikh Gurdwaras, including the house where Guru Nanak was born, which has now been converted into a Gurdwara, and is called Janam Asthan.

Other Sikh Gurdwaras of the district include:

  • Gurdwara Sacha Sauda near Farooqabad town: This was the resting place of Baba Guru Nanak
  • Gurdwara Tambu Sahib: This is located one km from Gurdwara Janam Asthan
  • Gurdwara Malji Sahib
  • Gurdwara Kiara Sahib: According to legend, Guru Nanak rested underneath a shady tree when his family cattle was grazing, but his cattle went astray and damaged the crops of another farmer. The angry farmer made a complaint to Rai Bhullar, the reigning monarch, who visited the fields but could not find any damage to the crops at all. A Gurdwara has been constructed in the location to commemorate this miraculous recovery of the crops
  • Gurdwara Bal Lilah: This is located 400 yards from the holy shrine of Janam Asthan. Rai Bhullar Bhatti, the ruler of Talwandi, built both the holy pond called Nanaksar and a Gurdwara in memory ofthe adventures of Guru Nanak’s early childhood
  • Gurudwara Panjvin and Chhevin Patshahi: Both of these historical shrines (Panjvin and Chhevin) are situated near Tambo Sahib on the road leading to Janam Asthan, Nankana Sahib. There are two more shrines sharing the same boundary wall. Of these two, one is dedicated to Guru Arjun and is without a dome, while the other shrine, dedicated to Guru Hargobind, has been built with a dome
  • Gurdwara Maulvi Patti Sahib: This Gurdwara is close to the Gurdwara Bal Lilah. At this site, Guru Nanak used to learn Devnagri. Later on, he was sent to Pundit Brij Lal to learn Sanskrit.At the age of 13, Rai Bhullar sent Nanak to Maulvi Kutab-ud Din of Talwandi to learn Persian
  • Gurdwara Nihang-Singhan: This Gurdwara is located between Gurdwara Tambu Sahib and Gurdwara Hargobind Sahib
  • Gurdwara Guru Hargobind Ji Sahib: Guru Hargobind stayed in Nankana Sahib in 1613, after returning from Kashmir.A Gurdwara was constructed at the place where the Guru stayed. It is situated in the close vicinity of Gurdwara Tambu Sahib

Other places of interest include:

  • Grave of Rai Bhullar at Dhaular (Nankana Sahib): On top of the Dhaular hill, which is located behind the birthplace of Guru Nanak, is the grave of Rai Bhullar, the first person to notice Guru Nanak’s divine qualities. According to local legend, when Rai Bhullar was inspecting his fields, he saw a young boy (who grew up to become Guru Nanak) sleeping but being protected from the glare of the sun by hooded cobras. This convinced Rai Bhullar of Nanak’s special qualities, and a lifelong bond developed between them. After the death of Nanak Sahib, Rai Bhullar bestowed half of his estate to him and constructed Gurdwara Janam Asthan. Descendants of Rai Bular still live in, and around, Nankana Sahib, most notably including Rai Bashir Bhatti, Rai Muhabbat, and Rai Rashid Bhatti
  • Rana Hunting Resort (Balloki Headworks): this resort contains 200 acres of thick bamboo jungle as well as a cricket ground, basketball courts, table tennis, and badminton courts

There are a few shrines of Muslim Saints in the district as well, including:

  • Shrine of Haji Dewan at Khanqah Dogran where a fair is held every year. Haji Dewan’s shrine was built during the reign of Mughal Emperor, Akbar the Great
  • Shrine of Hazrat Abul Khair Naulak Hazari at Shahkot also play host to a large number of devotees every year

There are other parks and areas, including the canal banks which provide good outdoor picnic spots.

Figure 1.9 Gurdwara Janam Asthan

Figure 1.10 Gurdwara Kiara Sahib in Nankana Sahib

Figure 1.11 View of Lake Resort

[3] Janam Asthan is a highly revered Gurdwara/Sikh temple, and is the place where Guru Nanak was born

[4] The district shares 3 seats with Sheikhupura district as Sheikhupura plus Nankana Sahib

Topography

Nankana Sahib district was a tehsil of Sheikhupura district till May 2005, when it was upgraded to a district level. The average elevation of Nankana Sahib is 188 m above mean sea level.

The district is located in the Sandal Bar region of Rechna Doab[1] and consists of some recent sediment brought by spill channel from River Chenab. The topography of the Rechna Doab/ Sandal Bar is relatively flat, with land surface gradient ranging from about 0.25 m per km in the north and northeast, to less than 0.2 m per km towards the south and southwest.

Most of the district is an alluvial plain, the monotony of which is broken by the Sangla Hills of Sangla Hill Tehsil. This tehsil is located in the Sandal Bar region which is a level prairie, thickly dotted with stunted undergrowth of bush jungle. But there is a rocky hill known as Sanglanwala Tibba which rises to a height of 65 m (215 ft) above the surrounding plain on its north side. The main feature of the Sangla Hill Tehsil is this hill, the peak of which is visible from miles.

The River Ravi separates this district from Sheikhupura. The banks of the river are low and prone to flooding.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

River Ravi flows along the southeastern border of the district. The town of Syedwala is situated along its bank. On the west of Syedwala Town is the Degh (or Dek) nullah. In addition, there are a number of small lakes in the district where fishing is carried out on a large scale; these include the Ranawali Dhand, Nawankot Dhand, Baharipur Dhand, Ganeshpur Dhand, and Dhand Nano Dogar.

Forests

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Nankana Sahib as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 2,634 A Reserved Forests 700 A
District Govt. – A Resumed Land 1,937 A
Linear Plantation – km

Table 1.3 Nankana Sahib Forests

Soils

The soil in the district’s areas belonging to the Sandal Bar is commonly known as Missie. This type of soil is generally fertile, and is a rapid water absorbent soil, making it unfit for rice cultivation. The worst types of this soil are the sand hillocks which are found here and there in all tracts and are known as Tibba. The silt brought in by River Ravi is very fertile. The quality of this soil drops to inferior sandy soil as the land slopes upwards to higher altitudes.

Figure 1.6 Sangla Hil

Climate

Nankana Sahib district belongs to the Rechna Doab area, which is a subtropical, continental lowland designated as a semi-arid area. The climate is characterized by large seasonal fluctuations of temperature and rainfall. Summers are long and hot, usually lasting from April through September with maximum temperatures ranging from 21 °C to 49 °C. The winter season lasts from December through February, with maximum temperature ranging from 21 °C to 27 °C during the day and sometimes falling below zero at night.

The annual average rainfall in the district is about 650 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Rechna Doab is the area between Rivers Ravi and Chenab

Population

Population of Nankana Sahib district as per the 2017 Census is as follows:

District/Tehsil Area km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Nankana Sahib Dist. 1,662 1,356,374 51 49 15.1 1.38
Nankana Sahib Tehsil NA[1] 883,876
Shahkot Tehsil NA 244,868
Sangla Hill Tehsil NA 227,630

Table 1.4 Nankana Sahib Population Statistics

Religion[2]

Muslims 97%
Christians 2.6%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.2%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others 0.1%

Table 1.5 Nankana Sahib Religions

Languages[3]

Urdu 0.4%
Punjabi 98.5%
Sindhi 0.2%
Pushto 0.2%
Balochi 0.2%
Seraiki 0.3%
Others 0.2%

Table 1.6 Nankana Sahib Languages[4]

[1] Since the district was created in 2005, data on area is not available; 2017 Census uses spatial data.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[4] The above data is only for Nankana Sahib tehsil, as no other data is available

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

According to the 1998 Census, the major employers of the district (same as Sheikhupura district) are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing, Hunting etc. (29.6%)
  • Construction (37.5%)
  • Manufacture (9.5%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail, Restaurant/ Hotel (6.7%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (8%)
  • Transport, Communication & Storage (3.2%)
  • Others (5.5%)

Land Use

The land use statistics of Nankana Sahib as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 are shown in the following table:

Total Area 272,000 HA Reported Area 224,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 185,000 HA Net Sown 163,000 HA
Current Fallows 22,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 39,000 HA
Culturable Waste 19,000 HA Forest Area 1,000 HA

Table 1.7 Nankana Sahib Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture and its allied livestock breeding is the main occupation of the rural areas of the area with nearly 35.9% of the rural population is engaged in this occupation.

Sugarcane, wheat, rice, maize, jowar, bajra, cotton, gram, moong, maash, masoor, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, groundnut, sesanum, guar seed, linseed, sunn hemp, castor seed, millet, tobacco, and fodder are the crops of the district.

Major fruits of the district include guava, citrus, mango, banana, leechee, jaamun, phalsa, ber, mulberry, melon, musk melon, and watermelon.

Major vegetables are potatoes, cauliflower, carrots, onions, tomatoes, turnips, peas, chilies, garlic, sugarbeet, coriander, turmeric, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, radish, cucumber, cabbage, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, yams, water chestnut, and brinjals.

Figure 1.7 A Green Field, Sangla Hill Tehsil

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is an important economic activity of the district. Nearly all farmers keep a few heads of cattle and poultry to help increase the family’s income.

The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Census of Livestock (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 173,000 Heads Buffaloes 493,000 Heads Sheep 23,000 Heads
Goats 243,000 Heads Camels 395 Heads Horses 4,655 Heads
Mules 2,265 Heads Asses 31,400 Heads

Table 1.8 Nankana Sahib Livestock Statistics

Nili Ravi buffaloes, lohi sheep, beetal goats, and beetal spotted goats are all native breeds of livestock found in the district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 392 poultry farms in the district. According to Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 there are 65 broiler, 106 layer and 5 poultry breeding farms in the District (all privately owned).

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the Ranawali Dhand, Nawankot Dhand, Baharipur Dhand, Ganeshpur Dhand, and River Ravi near Syedwala Town;[1] this fish is consumed locally.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

In Pakistan, honey bee colonies were introduced in the 1980s, and since then, more than 300,000 honey bee colonies have been established in Pakistan, including Nankana Sahib

[1] Fishing Manual by Fisheries Department Punjab.

Irrigation

The Upper and Lower Chenab Canals are the major irrigation canals of the district. The Upper Chenab Canal off-takes from the Marala Headworks, whereas the Lower Chenab Canal off-takes from Headworks Khanki. The Rakh Branch Canal has been taken out of the Lower Chenab Canal; it passes through, and produces tributaries in, Nankana Sahib, Hafizabad, and Faisalabad districts. Other smaller canals irrigating the district include Nankana Branch, Abbasi Minor, Sharqpur Distributary, and Kanwali Minor.[1]

Irrigation statistics as per the Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 are shown in the following table:

Total Irrigated Area 304,000 HA Un-Irrigated Area – HA
Canal Irrigated 2,000 HA Wells Irrigated 7,000 HA
Tube Well Irrigated Area 7,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 269,000 HA
Canal Wells 16,000 HA Others 3,000 HA

Table 1.11 Nankana Sahib Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.12 Bridge on River Ravi, Syedwala Town

Minerals and Mining

Minerals are not being mined in the district.

Industry

Even though, at present, there is no industrial estate in the district, there are 151 small, medium, and large industrial units[1] operating in the district. The following table shows the type and number of industries in the district:

Type of Industry Number of Units Type of Industry Number of Units
Chemical 01 Chip/ Straw Board 01
Cold Storage 01 Cotton Ginning & Pressing 01
Flour Mills 04 Food Products 01
Industrial Machinery 01 Power Generation 03
Rice Mills 109 Soaps & Detergents 03
Sugar 02 Textile Processing 01
Textile Spinning 18 Textile Weaving 03
Woolen Textile/ Spinning 02

Table 1.9 Nankana Sahib Industries

Trade

Industrial goods made in the district as well as agricultural produce are the major trade items of the district.

Handicrafts

Major handicrafts of the district include embroidery on clothes, leather wallets, and other leather products, as well as hand knotted carpets.

[1] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-Investment Study Nankana Sahib District 2012; Latest available.

[1] Travelingluck.com

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked with Sheikhupura, Lahore, and Faisalabad districts through black topped roads. Lahore-Islamabad Motorway touches Nankana Sahib at Khanqah Dogran where an interchange has been constructed.

The district is linked with Lahore and Faisalabad districts through the Pakistan Railway network. Nankana Sahib Town, Chak Jumra, Mandi Warburton, and Sangla Hill are the major rail links.

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total road length 1,951 km
National Highways – km
Provincial highways 1,808.4 km
Motorways – km
Sugar Cess Roads 142.6 km

Table 1.10 Nankana Sahib Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district are:

  • Nankana Sahib-Jaranwala Road
  • Nankana Sahib–Bucheki Road
  • Nankana Sahib-Warburton Road
  • Mananwala-Nankana Sahib Road
  • Nankana Sahib-Shahkot Road
  • Lahore-Sheikhupura-Islamabad Road
  • Mananwala-Sargodha Link Road

Rail and Airways

The district is linked with Lahore and Faisalabad districts through the Pakistan Railway network. There are 3 railway stations in the district, with 2 in Nankana Sahib tehsil, and 1 in Sangla Hill tehsil.[1]

There is no commercial or military airport/ airbase in the district; the closest commercial airport to Nankana Sahib is the Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore.

Radio and Television

There is no private or government-owned radio station in Nankana Sahib district. Even though there is no independent TV station in the district, transmissions can be viewed through boosters and cable.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines. In all, there are 30 telephone exchanges[2] operating in the district, ranging in capacity from 50 lines to 7,822 lines. In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 13 offices[3] of Pakistan Post in the district, with 8 offices in Nankana Sahib tehsil, 2 in Sangla Hill tehsil and 3 in Shahkot tehsil.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are 57 branches[4] of various banks in the district with 35 branches in Nankana Sahib tehsil, 9 in Sangla Hill tehsil, and 13 branches in Shahkot tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan the following banks have branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab
  • Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 68 branches of various conventional banks and 03 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Lahore Electric Supply Company (LESCO) looks after the supply and transmission of electricity to the district. There are 9 grid stations[5] ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV in the district. Gas connection for residential purposes is available in all three tehsils.

[1] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Nankana Sahib District 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Nankana Sahib District 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Nankana Sahib District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Nankana Sahib District 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Nankana Sahib District 2012; Latest available.

Education

The following table gives the details of educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility Boys/girl
Primary Schools 324/241 Middle Schools 58/84
Secondary Schools 50/34 Higher Secondary 04/09
Degree Colleges 07/08 Other Higher Secondary[1] 02/-
Other Degree Colleges[2] 02/08 Technical Training Institutes[3] 04/01
Vocational Institutes[4] -/02 Commercial Training[5] 01/-
University Government Mosque Schools -/-
Medical Colleges Agriculture Colleges (Campus)
Engineering Colleges Law Colleges

Table 1.12Nankana Sahib Educational Institutions

Figure 1.13 Guru Nanak High School

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. This DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health care institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 05/310 Dispensaries 18/-
Rural Health Centers (RHC) 07/144 Basic Health Units (BHU) 48/96
T B Clinics -/- Mother Child Health Centers 05/-
Private Hospitals -/- Sub-Health Centers -/-
Private Health Care Providers[6] 73/NA

Table 1.13 Nankana Sahib Health Institutions

Policing

Deputy Inspector General Police (DIGP) looks after the Sheikhupura region which comprises of Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahib, and Kasur districts. Nankana Sahib district is further subdivided into 3 subdivisions with 11 police stations.[7] The police force in each region is headed by a District Police Officer (DPO) who is assisted by a varying number of Superintendents and Deputy Superintendents of Police.

Figure 1.14 Mananwala Police Station, Nankana Sahib

[1] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF

[2] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study 2012 Nankana Sahib District; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study 2012 Nankana Sahib District; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study 2012 Nankana Sahib District; Latest available.

[6] Three Years Rolling Plan 2010-13 Nankana Sahib District; Latest available.

 

[7] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

Nankana Sahib district is mostly rural with only 18.1% of its population living in urban areas (2017 Census). There is very little industrialization, due to which air quality is generally good. The only source of air pollution in the district is dust and emissions from vehicular traffic.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The most common flora of the district is the karir (Capparis aphylla), jhand (Prosopis spicigera), vann (Salvadora obeoides), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), kikar (Acacia Arabica), peepal (Ficus religosa), bohar (Ficus indica), eucalyptus (eucalyptus), poplar (Populus), shirin (Albizia lebbek), lana (Suda ruiteesa), lani (Salsola fostida), babul (Acacia nilotica), semal or silk cotton tree (Bombax ceiba), aak (Calotropis procera), and ber (Ziziphus mauritania). Grasses, and shrubs include dab (Desmostachya bipinnata), kai (Saccharum spotaneum), kundar (Typha angustata), and nar (Phagmites karka) as well as shrubs like lai (Tamarix dioca), jawanha (Alhaji maurorum), water cabbage (Pistiastratiotes), water hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes), reed (Phragmites), lotus (Nelumbonucifera), Sugar cane (saccharum rotundus), coconut (Nucifera), and bulrush (Typhadomigensis).

Figure 1.8 Devotees at Sacred Jand tree, Nankana Sahib, Gurdwara

Fauna

Wild boar, jackals, hare, and wolves are the only wildlife found in the district. Birds include crows, mynas, sparrows, black and grey partridges, falcons, eagles, quails, starlings, jungle pigeons, house pigeons, Russian sparrow, doves, various varieties of ducks, egrets, kingfishers, snipes, and parrots. The Balloki Headworks pond area supports fish and a large population of migratory birds, some of which are barbet birds, coppersmith wolvert, bitterns, bulbuls, cuckoos, doves, drongos, eagles, steppe eagles, finches, fly catchers, godwit, harriers, herons, blue jays, kestrels, lapwings, spotted owlet, grey and black partridges, sparrow hawk, purple sunbird, stilts, and blue throat sandpiper.

Some of the fish found in the Balloki Headworks pond area are spotted snakehead, rohu, baculis, swamp barb, and butter catfish.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Species

The only wildlife protected area is part of the pond area of the Balloki Headworks which is situated in Nankana Sahib district.

This game reserve provides sanctuary to all the game birds and migratory birds visiting the pond.