Punjab-Sargodha

Introduction

Sargodha district is located between 31° 34Ꞌ to 32° 36Ꞌ north latitudes, and 72° 10Ꞌ to 73° 18Ꞌ east longitudes. The district is bounded on the north by Jhelum district, on the east by River Chenab (beyond which lies the districts of Mandi Bahauddin and Hafizabad), on the south by Jhang district, and on the west by Khushab district. River Jhelum separates Khushab district from Sargodha district.

District at a Glance

Name of District Sargodha District
District Headquarter Sargodha City
Population[1] 3,703,588 persons
Area[2] 5,854 km2
Population Density[3] 640.7 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.7%
Male Population[5] 50.6%
Female Population[6] 49.4%
Urban Population[7] 29.5%
Tehsils 07 Tehsils:

1.    Bhera Tehsil[8]

2.    Bhalwal Tehsil

3.    Kot Momin Tehsil

4.    Sahiwal Tehsil

5.    Sargodha Tehsil

6.    Shahpur Tehsil

7.    Sillanwali Tehsils

Main Towns Sargodha, Shahpur, Bhalwal, Phularwan, Bhera, Sillanwali, Lakhiwal Sharif, Haveli Majoka, Faruka, Jhawarian, Kalra, Shah Nikdar, Sahiwal, Nihang, Middah Ranjha, Mitha Tiwana, Mitha Lak, Lak More, Kot Momin, Lilyani, Shaheenabad, Jahanian Shah, Chauki Bhaggat, Talbey Wala Pattan, Batree Shahabdin Di, Nurpur Noon, Mangowal West, Thatti Noor Di, Ali Pur Noon, Sardar Pur Noon, Sultanpur Noon, Fatehpur Noon, Share Muhammad Wala Noon, Kikrawn Wala Noon, Zafarabad Noon, and Kot Hakim Khan Noon
Literacy Rate[9] 63%
Male Literacy Rate[10] 74%
Female Literacy Rate[11] 53%
Major Economic Activity[12] Construction Industry 35.8%
Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing 31.0%
Community, Social & Personal Service 9.3%
Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant 7.8%
Activities Not Adequately Defined 6.7%
Manufacture 4.2%
Transport, Communication & Storage 3.1%
Others 2.1%
Main Crops Sugarcane, wheat, rice, maize, cotton, groundnut, jowar, bajra, guarseed, sunflower, moong, maash, masoor, gram, rapeseed & mustard, barley, sesanum, sugarbeet, linseed, sunn hemp, and canola
Major Fruits Citrus, guavas, mangoes, jaamun, pears, dates, pomegranates, phalsa almonds, ber, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Chilies, onion, potato, tomatoes, coriander, garlic, peas, turnip, cauliflower, okra, carrots, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, radishes, and spinach
Forests (area)[13] 1,000 HA[14]
Total Black Topped Roads[15] 5,742.3 km
National Highways[16] – km
Motorways[17] 71.0 km
Provincial Highways[18] 5,391.2 km
Sugar Cess Roads[19] 280.1 km
No. of Grid Stations[20] 22 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV; and 1 grid station of 220 KV capacity
No. of Telephone Exchanges[21] 80 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 200 lines to 14,215 lines
Industrial Zones[22] 1 Small Industrial Estate, and 406 small, medium, and large enterprises, out of which 50 units are now closed or sick
Major Industry[23] Cold Storage 24 Units
Citrus Grading, Soaps & Detergents 41 Units ea
Electric Goods 141 Units
Leather Footwear 19 Units
Rice Mills 24 Units
Household Size[24] 6.4 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[25] 10.9%
Houses with Electricity[26] 71.6%

Table 1.1 Sargodha District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Bhera was part of Bhalwal Tehsil till 2012

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[10] PSLM

[11] PSLM

[12] 1998 Census; 2017 Census has not been made public yet.

[13] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[14]Land Utilization Statistics report 2,000 HA under forests.

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[20] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District Study 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District Study 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District Study 2012; Latest available.

[23] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District Study 2012; for a detailed listing of industries, please refer to the section on Industry

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census has not been made public yet.

[26] 1998 Census; 2017 Census has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistorical Sites, Tourist Attractions, Picnic Spots

Brief History of the District

Sargodha district is located in the Jech/ Chaj Doab (area of land between the Rivers Jhelum and Chenab). Historical evidence shows that the part of the Punjab Plain belonging to Sargodha district was an agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization (Bronze Age Civilization 3300-1300 BC). It is also known that Sargodha has been ruled by the Maurya Empire (322-185 BC), Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BC-10 AD), Kushan Empire (20-280 AD), Gupta Empire (320-550 AD), White Huns (408-670 AD), and the Shahi Kingdom (700-1010 AD).

The modern town of Bhera is situated near the east bank of River Jhelum, but on the opposite bank of the river are situated extensive mounds of ruins called old Bhera or Jobnathnagar, the city of Raja Jobnath (or Chobnath)[1] which can still be seen. Sir Cunningham shows that Bhera was the capital of the Brahman kings expelled by Muslims around the 10th century AD.

The first tangible facts concerning the history of the district are gained from Mughal Emperor Babar’s Memoirs[2] (Babarnama). In the year 1504-05 AD, when Babar passed through the Khyber Pass, and advanced towards Peshawar, he wrote (about the areas he passed) that

The Government of Bhira, Khush-ab and Chenab were held by Sayyid Ali Khan. He read the Khutba in the name of lskander Bahlol, and was subject to him. Being alarmed at my inroad he abandoned the town of Bhira, crossed the River Behat [Behat is still the local name for Jhelum] and made Sher-kot, one of the villages in Bhira, his capital. After a year or two, the Afghans having conceived suspicions against Sayyid Ali on my account, he became alarmed at their hostility, and surrendered his country to Daulat Khan, who was governor of Lahore. Daulat Khan gave Bhira to his eldest son Ali Khan, by whom it was now [1519][3] held. (v.1, p. 382)

In 997 AD, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi took over the Ghaznavid Dynasty established by his father Sultan Sebuktigin. In 1005 AD he conquered the Shahis in Kabul[4] and followed it by conquests of the Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal Empire, also ruled the region. The Punjab District Gazetteers Shahpur District 1918[5] asserts that the Mughal rule did not leave any lasting impressions and hence little has been preserved of its history. During the rule of Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah (Mughal Emperor from 1719-1748), the affairs of Bhera and the surrounding country were administered by Raja Salamat Rai of the Khatri clan and the southern part along River Chenab was looked after by Maharaja Kaura Mal who was then Governor of Multan. The weakness of the Mughal Government invited foreign attacks, and thus, wave after wave of invasions continued on the area for 30 years. During this interval, the Sikhs continued to gain strength and enriched themselves at the expense of their more peaceable neighbours. In 1757 Ahmad Shah Durrani of the Durrani Empire sent a force under Noor-ud Din Bamizai to assist his son in expelling the Marathas. He crossed the River Jhelum at Khushab (then part of Shahpur district) and marched up the left bank of the river. Since the people of the area could not pay the high ransom demanded of them, he laid waste three of the largest towns of the area. Of these three, two (Bhera and Miani) rebuilt on their ruins but the third, Chak Sultan, was completely demolished without any trace.

After the Sikhs finally succeeded against Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1767, various Sikh Misls (i.e. sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy) took over the area now belonging to Sargodha district and, by 1799, all of Punjab became part of the Sikh Empire under Ranjit Singh. After Ranjit Singh’s death in 1839, the Sikh Empire started disintegrating and relations with the British became tense. Two major wars were fought between the Sikhs and the British and after the Second Anglo Sikh War in 1849, the area was annexed by the British.

During the 1857 War of Independence (called the Mutiny by the British), the 46th Native Infantry which formed the treasury guard mutinied, but a strong guard was sent under three European Officers. This guard was able to take possession of the treasury’s money. Part of this money was sent to Jhelum and a part towards Dera Ismail Khan. The Native force was turned out of the treasury fort. A portion of another garrison, the 9th Irregular Cavalry, also revolted. On defeat by the British, these were persecuted and severely punished. Later a force of local Levies was raised for upkeep of law and order[6] in the region.

When the British took over, the whole of Jech/Chaj Doab was one district. Since this was a very large area, it was divided into two districts in 1849¾Gujrat and Shahpur. Shahpur consisted of Miani, Bhera, Sahiwal, and Kadirpur tehsils. In 1851, Kadirpur tehsil was transferred to Jhang. Khushab tehsil was transferred to Leiah (now spelled Layyah), but a year later it was transferred to Shahpur, which by then consisted of Bhera, Sahiwal, and Kalowal tehsils. In 1857, Mitha Tiwana was transferred to Shahpur, and many talukas of Jhelum district were also added to it, forming a fourth tehsil of Jaba. In 1861, Kalowal tehsil was transferred to Jhelum, and later, Jaba too was transferred to the same district.

Sargodha town was established by the British in 1903.[7] It was a small town initially but, due to its geographical location, the British Royal Air Force built an airport near the town, resulting in the development of the town into a major urban area. Sargodha tehsil was created in 1906[8] with portions of Shahpur tehsil, Bhera tehsil and Chiniot tehsil (of Jhang district).

In 1947 Shahpur district became part of Pakistan. In 1961 the name of the district was changed to Sargodha and Shahpur was made one of its tehsils. At that time, it consisted of 5 tehsils: Sargodha, Bhalwal, Shahpur, Sillanwali, and Sahiwal tehsils, but in 2003 two more tehsils, Bhera, and Kot Momin, were created, making the total number of tehsils in Sargodha 7.

The airport constructed by the British in Sargodha became one of the largest airbases of Pakistan Airforce after Partition, called the Mushaf Airbase. This base is surrounded by the Kirana Hills. In the 1965 Pakistan-India War, Sargodha City was a prime target for India. The citizens of Sargodha supported the Pakistan Army during the war, and for this support, the city of Sargodha, along with Sialkot and Lahore, was awarded the Hilal-e-Istaqlal in 1996 as recognition for the bravery of the citizens. The city is also known as the City of Eagles, because of the airbase. The Mushaf base hosts the Head office of the Pakistan Air Force’s Central Air Command. The airbase is also home to the Combat Commander School (CCS), which was formerly known as the Fighter Leaders School, an elite training facility for training Pakistan Air Force Pilots in fighter tactics and weapons.

The name of the district[9] comprises of two words Sar and Godha. Sar means pond and Godha refers to the name of a Sadhu, which translates to Pond of the Godha. There are several theories about the origin of this name. One theory is that it is derived from the Sanskrit word svargadhama meaning heavenly abode. However, if the origins were, indeed, Sanskrit, the Punjabi version would most likely be Sargdham. The most widely accepted theory for the origins of the name is that there was a pond in the middle of the town where a Hindu resident, Godha, used to live. In Punjabi, sar is used for pond, so the location is believed to have been named Sargodha which means Pond of Godha. This is also a little contradictory, because the order of the words does not accurately reflect the Punjabi usage; for example, in the name Amritsar, which translates to pool of nector, the word sar is used as a suffix.

Sargodha district is believed to be the location featured in the famous Heer Ranjha love story.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Sargodha district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 5
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 9

Under Local Government and Community Development Sargodha district has 1 District Council, and 1 Municipal Corporation as follows:

  • Municipal Corporation Sargodha

The city has 6 Municipal Committees:

  • Sillanwali
  • Bhalwal
  • Shahpur Saddar
  • Kot Momin
  • Sahiwal
  • Bhera

Administrative Divisions

Sargodha district has an area of 5,854 km2 and is divided into 7 tehsils as follows:

Sargodha Tehsil 62 Union Councils
Bhera Tehsil[10] 15 Union Councils
Bhalwal Tehsil 16 Union Councils
Kot Momin Tehsil[11] 22 Union Councils
Sahiwal Tehsil 14 Union Councils
Sillanwali Tehsil 16 Union Councils
Shahpur Tehsil 16 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Sargodha Administrative Divisions

Historical Sites, Tourist Attractions, Picnic Spots

The following sites are protected historical/ heritage sites of the district:

  • Site of the ancient city of Bhera: The old town was destroyed in 1519 AD. A new town was built in 1540, during the reign of Sher Shah Suri near the abode of a holy man called Pir Kayanat, whose tomb is still extant. The town is surrounded by a wall with eight gates, of which the Lahori Gate in the east and the Thanwala in the north are the principal gates
  • Sher Shah Suri Jamia Mosque, built in 1540 (protected by Provincial Government)
  • Site of the ancient city Vijjhi: Known as Sabzal Pind, (Hindu Shahi Period, 2nd-7th century AD) the site features six tombs of Nougas or giant martyrs. Two coins, dating back to the Indo-Scythian era were found at the site
  • Jamia Masjid Bhera: This mosque was constructed by Sher Shah Suri
  • Takht Hazara: Takht Hazara was once called Jehangirnagar, but the name was changed to Takht Hazara because it covered a thousand acres (hazara means of thousand). There are numerous mounds that prove this claim. Ranjha or Dhido of the Ranjha tribe, the legendary hero of the Heer Ranjha love story, belonged to this place. There are a large number of small wells, a mosque and tombs of several faqirs (holy hermits), the most notable of which is the tomb of a Mughal Faqir called Shaham-ud Din. The town is said to have been deserted about 200 years ago
  • Shahpur: Many old buildings and ruins of residential bungalows are still extant in the city. The shrine of Shah Yousaf is also located in Shahpur
  • Company Bagh (Jinnah Garden)
  • 25 feet long grave of Panj Peer, Nehang Town, Sargodha

Other recreational sites include:

  • Rehamat-il-Aalimeen Park, Aziz Park, and Rana Nadeem Park, Sillanwali
  • Bank of River Jhelum
  • Kirana Hills

 

Fi

gure 1.7 A 19th Century House in Sargodha

Figure 1.8 A View of Company/Jinnah Park Sargodha

Figure 1.9 Kirana Hills Sargodha

Figure 1.10 Sher Shah Suri Jamia Mosque, 1540, Bhera

 

[1] Ancient Geography of India by Sir Cunningham; Raja Jobnath was a contemporary of Alexander the Great

[2] English translation by Annette Susannah Beveridge.

[3] Sargodha District Profile by GoPakistan 1998.

[4] The Shahis of Kabul were also called Shahiya. They ruled one of the Middle Kingdoms of India which included portions of Kabulistan and the old province of Gandhara (now in Northern Pakistan). From the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century, the Kingdom was known as “Kabul Shahi” and later as Hindu Shahi when they moved their sapital south to Hind.

[5] Sargodha district was part of Shahpur district during the British Raj as one of its tehsils

[6] Government of Punjab. Punjab District Gazetteers Shahpur District 1917-18

[7] Imperial Gazetteer of India v. 22. p. 108

[8] Imperial Gazetteer of India v. 22. p 107

[9] District profile by GoPakistan; 1998.

[10] Bhera was notified as a tehsil in July 2012

[11] Kot Momin was notified as a tehsil in 2003; details for both Bhera and Kot Momin have been taken from tehsil Bhalwal

Topography

The district of Sargodha is located in the Jech/Chaj Doab which comprises of the districts of Sargodha, Gujrat, Mandi Bahauddin, Malakwal, Shahpur, Phalia, Sarai Alamgir, and Kharian. The district is mostly flat, and is 150-200 m above mean sea level. East of River Jhelum, the district includes the Bar which consists of a level upland. Towards the south of Sargodha, the plains are interrupted by rock outcrops of a buried hill range known as Kirana Hills. This range is also called the Delhi-Shahpur (or Sargodha) ridge.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The River Jhelum crosses the district in the extreme west and the River Chenab forms its eastern boundary. There are no perennial nullahs in the district; even though some hill torrents originate in the low hills of Kirana during summer, these dry up after the rains end.

There are 2 major lakes in the district: the Nabisar Lake (protected under the Pakistan Laws as a Wetland of International Importance) and the Budh Lake.

Forests

The district features Irrigated Plantations and Riverine Forests. There are 2 small riverine forests called Jhawarian and Logharian Belas, and 2 Chak/ irrigated plantations under the Forest Department, in addition to linear plantations. The irrigated plantations are Chak No. 19/SB, Chak No. 58/NB, and Chak No. 93/NB.

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Sargodha district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 1,405 A Under Provincial Govt. 1,405 A
District Govt. – A Reserved Forests – A
Linear Plantation 795 km Resumed Land – A

Table 1.3 Sargodha Livestock Statistics

The forests of Sargodha district support the growth of kikar (Acacia Arabica), shisham or thali (Dalbergio sissoo), vann or peelu/ tooth brush tree (Salvadora oleoides), kari or salt wart (Salsola foliosa), jand (Prosopis spicigera), ber (Zizyphus nummularia), sirin (Albizzia lebbek), frash (Tamrix articulata), sohajna or horse radish (Moringa pterygosperma), lasura or Asyrian plum (Cordial myxa), mulberry or toot (Morus alba), and date palm or khajji (Phoenix dactylifera).

Soils

Most of the soils of the district consist of alluvial deposits of the Indus and its tributaries. This soil is fertile and needs irrigation water to become productive.

Climate

The district has extreme climate. May, June, and July are the hottest months, when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures stay in the range of 39 °C and 25 °C. December, January, and February are the coldest months, and during this period, the mean maximum and minimum temperatures stay between 21 °C and 6 °C respectively. July, August, and September are the Monsoon months, when most of the rainfall of the district is received. The rainfall decreases from the northwest to the southwest, and as such, the hills get more rains than the plains. Average annual rainfall of the district is about 400 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan, which means minor to no damage to property due to earthquakes.

Population

The following table shows the population of the district and its tehsils as per 2017 Census:

Tehsil/Taluka Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban

%

Growth Rate%
Sargodha District 5,854 3,703,588 50.6 40.4 29.5 1.74
Bhalwal Tehsil[1] 2,115 357,331
Sahiwal Tehsil 829 341,247
Sargodha Tehsil 1,536 1,537,866
Shahpur Tehsil 767 353,969
Sillanwali Tehsil 607 344,465
Kot Momin Tehsil Included in Bhalwal Tehsil 453,562
Bhera Tehsil Included in Bhalwal and Kot Momin Tehsils 315,148

Table 1.4 Sargodha Population Statistics

Religions[2]

Muslims 97.4%
Christians 2.2%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.3%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Sargodha Religions

Languages[3]

Urdu 5.8%
Punjabi 93.2%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 6.5%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.1%
Others 0.1%

Table 1.6 Sargodha Languages

[1] Contains Statistics for Bhera and Kot Momin Tehsils also

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The major employers of the district include:[1]

  • Construction Industry (35.8%)
  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing (31.0%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Service (9.3%)
  • Wholesale/Retail, Hotel/Restaurant (7.8%)
  • Activities Not Adequately Defined (6.7%)
  • Manufacture (4.2%)
  • Transport, Communication & Storage (3.1%)
  • Others (2.1%)

Agriculture

Sargodha district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. The agriculture is mostly canal irrigated. Important crops of the district include sugarcane, wheat, rice, maize, cotton, groundnut, jowar, bajra, guarseed, sunflower, moong, maash, masoor, gram, rapeseed & mustard, barley, sesanum, sugarbeet, linseed, sunn hemp, and canola.

Fruits grown in the area include citrus, guavas, loquat, mangoes, jaamun, pears, dates, pomegranates, phalsa almonds, ber, and mulberry.

Vegetable produce of the area includes chilies, onion, potato, tomatoes, coriander, garlic, peas, turnip, cauliflower, okra, carrots, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, radishes, spinach, brinjal, and tinda.

Figure 1.3 Orange Farms, Sargodha

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 585,400 HA Reported Area 590,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 494,000 HA Net Sown 398,000 HA
Current Fallow 96,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 96,000 HA
Culturable Waste 48,000 HA Forest Area 2,000 HA

Table 1.7 Sargodha Land Use Statistics

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is a very important allied activity of the agriculture sector of Pakistan. Nearly all farmers keep a few heads of cattle and poultry to help increase the family’s income.

The following table shows the total population of livestock in the district according to the 2010 Census of Livestock (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 661,000 Heads Buffaloes 984,000 Heads Sheep 240,000 Heads
Goats 615,000 Heads Camels 1,216 Heads Horses 9,715 Heads
Mules 2,868 Heads Asses 76,564 Heads

Table 1.8 Sargodha Livestock Statistics

Dhanni cow, kajli sheep, thalli sheep, salt range sheep, beetal goats, beetal spotted goats, teddy goats, barbary goats, and thorough bred horses are the indigenous breeds of livestock in Sargodha district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 1,197 poultry farms in the district. Number of privately owned poultry farms in the District as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 are 728 broiler, 20 layer and 04 poultry breeding farms.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in ponds and canals[2] of the district; some of this fish is a trade commodity and is exported to other parts of Pakistan. Fishing is carried out in River Jhelum, River Chenab, Budhi Drain, Raniwah, Gondal Minor, Lower Jhelum Canal, and Talibwala Dhand, among others.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

Commercial bee keeping is carried out in various forests and farms in the district.

Irrigation

The irrigation system of Sargodha district covers a vast canal network, distributaries, and minors. The system mainly consists of the Lower Jhelum Canal and Upper Jhelum Canal, Lalian, and Khadir distributaries along with 18 minors or water courses that irrigate the district. The Lower Jhelum Canal emerges from the Rasul Barrage and Upper Jhelum Canal originates from the Mangla Dam.

The following table shows the irrigation statistics as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 551,000 HA Irrigated Area 525,000 HA
Un-Irrigated Area – HA Canal Irrigated 177,000 HA
Dug Wells 4,000 HA Tube Well Irrigated 36,000 HA
Canal Well Irrigated 5,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 303,000 HA
Others – HA

Table 1.11 Sargodha Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.15 Upper Jhelum Canal

Minerals and Mining

There is no mining activity in the district. Oil and gas are not being explored at present.

Industry

At present, there is 1 industrial estate established by the Punjab Small Industries Corporation (PSIC) in the district. There are a total of 406 different manufacturing industries[3] scattered in various areas of the district as follows:

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
Agricultural Implements 12 Beverages 01
Biscuit 01 Ceramic Products 01
Cold Storage 24 Chip/ Straw Board 02
Citrus Grading 41 Plastic Product 14
Confectionary 05 Cosmetics 01
Cotton Waste 01 Dairy Products 01
Domestic Hardware 04 Vegetable Ghee/Oil 02
Drugs & Pharmaceuticals 02 Electric Goods 141
Fans/Coolers 12 Flour Mills 12
Foundry Products 07 Glass & Glass Products 01
Hatchery 01 Leather Footwear 19
Packages 03 Paints & Varnish 08
Paper & Paper Board 01 Pesticides & Insecticides 01
Poultry Feed 02 PVC Pipes 01
Rice Mills 24 Textile Spinning 06
Soaps & Detergents 41 Sodium Silicate 01
Sugar 04 Tannery 08
Textile Composite 01

Table 1.9 Sargodha Industries

Trade

Sargodha trades in industrial goods manufactured in the district as well as agricultural produce. It exports kinoo (oranges) which are the best in Pakistan.

Handicrafts

Sargodha district is famous for making daggers, swords, cutlery, walking sticks, wooden furniture, carved doors, cotton blankets, silk cloth, hand fans, and earthen pottery.

Figure 1.4 Handicrafts of Sillanwali, Sargodha

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district is linked with Mianwali, Faisalabad, Bhakkar, Jhang, and Mandi Bahauddin districts through black topped roads. Also, all tehsil headquarters are linked with each other and the district headquarters with black topped roads. The Sargodha district is linked with Khushab, Mandi Bahauddin, and Chiniot districts through the railway network.

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 5,742.3 km
National Highways – km
Provincial Highways 5,391.3 km
Motorways 71.0 km
Sugar Cess Roads 280.1 km

Table 1.10 Sargodha Road Statistics

Following are some of the important road links of the district:

  • Bhera-Bhalwal-Sargodha Road
  • Bhera–Malakwal Road
  • Shahpur–Bhera Road
  • Multan–Jhang–Sargodha Road
  • Sargodha–Sillanwali Road
  • Sargodha–Lahore Road
  • Sargodha–Faisalabad Road
  • Sargodha–Gujrat Road

The district is connected to the Islamabad-Lahore Motorway (M 2) through a number of intersections.

Figure 1.11 Motorway (M 2) near Bhera

Figure 1.12 Chak 38, Bypass Road, Sargodha

Rail and Airways

The district is linked with Khushab and Chiniot districts through Pakistan Railways. There is a railway station at Sargodha, Shahpur, Sillanwali, Mangwana, Charnali, Pindi Rasool, Shaheenabad, and Sobhaga. In all, there are 38 railway stations[1] in the district.

There is an international airport at Sargodha and a Pakistan Air Force (PAF) air base called Mushaf Airbase in the district.

Figure 1.13 F-16 at Mushaf Airbase, Sargodha

Figure 1.14 Entrance to Mushaf Airbase

Radio and Television

At present, there is an FM Transmitter set up by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation in Sargodha in addition to which there is 1 privately-owned FM radio station. TV can be viewed through cable network.

Telecommunications

There are 80 telephone exchanges[2] operating in the district, each ranging in capacity from 200 lines to 14,215 lines. Nearly all of the major cellular companies also operate in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Pakistan Post has its headquarters in Sargodha city. There are 74 post offices[3] in the district, with 13 in Bhalwal tehsil, 39 in Sargodha tehsil, 06 in Shahpur tehsil, 03 in Sillanwali tehsil, 07 in Sahiwal tehsil, and 06 in Kot Momin tehsil. Nearly all the courier services of Pakistan provide their services in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

Most of the major banks of Pakistan have their branches in the district. In all, a total of 137 branches[4] of various banks are operating in the district, with 32 in Bhalwal tehsil, 59 in Sargodha tehsil, 11 in Shahpur tehsil, 09 in Sillanwali tehsil, 14 in Sahiwal tehsil, and 12 in Kot Momim tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have branches in the district:

  • Al Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Burj Bank Ltd.
  • Dubai Islamic Bank Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • First Women Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • JS Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Standard Chartered Bank Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 214 branches of various conventional banks and 30 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

The Faisalabad Electric Supply Corporation (FESCO) looks after supply of electricity in the district. There are 22 grid stations[5] ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV in the district. Natural gas for domestic use is available in Sargodha city and the Cantonment area.

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 630/670 Middle Schools 155/213
Secondary Schools 137/157 Higher Secondary 18/25
Degree Colleges 31/34 Other Higher Secondary[6] 05/04
Other Degree Colleges[7] 18/23 Technical Training Institutes 10/02
Vocational Institutes[8] -/04 Commercial Training Institutes[9] 05/01
Universities[10] 02 Govt. Mosque Schools 08/-
Medical Schools[11] 02 Engineering Schools[12] 01

Table 1.12 Sargodha Educational Institutions: Government

In addition there is 1 cadet college, called Cadet College Sargodha in the district. Also a large number of privately owned educational institutions impart education at all levels.

Figure 1.17 PAF Public School, Sargodha

Figure 1.19 College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. This DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 16/1,571 Dispensaries 51/04-
Rural Health Centers 17/262 Basic Health Units 141/270
T B Clinics 01/100 Mother Child Health Centers 04/-
Private Hospitals 03/132 Sub-Health Centers 01/08
Private Healthcare Providers[13] 90

Table 1.14 Sargodha Health Institutions

Policing

The Inspector General Police (IGP) stationed at Lahore is responsible for overall policing in Punjab. The Regional Police Officer (RPO) Sargodha Region (composed of Sargodha, Khushab, Mianwali and Bhakkar districts) reports to the IGP and is responsible for policing Sargodha district. The District Police Officer (DPO) Sargodha district is in charge of the district, and controls 7 Subdivisions, each headed by a Deputy Superintendent Police (DSP). These DSPs control 27 police stations[14] in Sargodha district.

[1] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District 2012; latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District 2012; latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District 2012; latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District 2012; latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District 2012; latest available.

[6] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[7] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[8] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District 2012; latest available.

[9] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District 2012; latest available.

[10] University of Sargodha and Campus of University of Lahore

[11] Sargodha Medical College and Rai Medical College (Private)

[12] University College of Engineering & Technology Sargodha

[13] Three Years Rolling Plan District Sargodha 2011-13, GoPunjab; latest available.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] Fisheries Department, Punjab. Fishing Manual

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sargodha District 2012; latest available.

Environment and Biodiversity

Sargodha is the 11th largest city of Pakistan with a large industrial base. These industries throw untreated waste into the surface drainage system, which has greatly reduced the water and soil quality. In addition, these industries are a source of air pollution.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The common flora of Sargodha district includes kikar (Acacia Arabica), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), jand (Prosopis spicigera), karir (Capparis aphyla), ber (Zizipus jujube), malla (Ziziphus nummularia), lasura (Cordial myxa), shahtoot or mulberry (Morus alba), sharing/ sirin (Albizzia lebbek), dherek (Melia azaderach), phulai (Acacia modesta), pipal (Ficus religosa), bohr or burgud/ banyan (Ficus bengalanese), vann or peelu/ tooth brush tree (Salvadora oleoides), riro or white bark acacia (Acacia leucophloea), farash (Tamarix articulata), eucalyptus or pilchhi (Tamarix dioca), amaltas or golden shower tree (Cassia fistula), and sharifa or sugar apple (Annona squamosa).

Wild growth of mesquite bushes, aak or milkweed (Calotropis procera), jawain or camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), sarkanda (Saccharum bengalense), gondi or lasura (Cordial myxa) and harmal (Peganum harmala) can be seen everywhere.

The herbs of the district include pohli (Asteraceae), kandiari or thorn apple (Solanum incanum), bathu (Chenopodium album L.), bhakra (Acanthaceae), kulfa (Portulaca quadrifida), thoom or wild onion (Allium sativum), cholai (Amaranthus viridis), soya or (Anethum graveolens), ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi), asparagus (Asparagus gracilis), bhatal (Sonchus arvensis), kali sarsoon (Brassicajuncea), and gandi booti (Parthenium hysterophorus).

Fauna

Wolves, jackals, wild boar, foxes, and wildcats are the common mammals of the district. Birds include chakor, see-see, grey partridges, a variety of ducks, sand shoveler, mallard, red-crested pochard, snipe, houbara bustard, sand grouse, lesser bustard, great Indian bustard, lesser stone plover, large stone plover, quails, and other cranes.

Data on reptilian and amphibian fauna is not available.

Figure 1.5 Palm Grove in Bhera, Sargodha

Figure 1.6 Orange Tree in Sargodha

Protected Areas/ Endangered Animals

At present, the Nabi Shah Lake is the only Wildlife Protected Area in Sargodha district. This game reserve provides sanctuary to black partridges, houbara bustard, great Indian bustard, and other migratory birds, as well as the otter, fishing cat, and mongoose.