Punjab-Khanewal

Introduction

Khanewal is located between 29° 51′ to 30° 43′ north latitudes and 71° 30′ to 72° 28′ east longitudes. The district is bounded by Sahiwal and Vehari districts on the east and southeast, Jhang and Toba Tek Singh on its north and northeast, Multan on its southwest, Muzaffargarh on its west, and Lodhran district on its south.

District at a Glance

Name of District Khanewal District
District Headquarter Khanewal City
Population[1] 2,921,986 persons
Area[2] 4,349 km2
Population Density[3] 669.8 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.8%
Male Population[5] 50.8%
Female Population[6] 49.2%
Urban Population[7] 19.3%
Tehsils 04 Tehsils:

1.    Jehanian Tehsil

2.    Kabirwala Tehsil

3.    Khanewal Tehsil

4.    Mian Channu Tehsil

Main Towns Jehanian, Mian Channu, Kabirwala, Khanewal, Abdul Hakeem, Tulamba, Atari, Makhdoompur Pahuran, Jamesabad, Kukkar Hatta, Kot Islam, Daramahram, Chah Qasim Wala, Chah Raja Wala, Jatt Tandain Wala, Khanewal Kohna, and Pirowal
Literacy Rate[8] 58%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 69%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 48%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing, etc. 51.1%
Manufacturing Industry 2.2%
Construction 23.7%
Wholesale/ Retail & Hotel/ Restaurant 7.1%
Community, Social & Personal Services 13.8%
Others 2.1%
Main Crops Cotton, wheat, sugarcane, rice, maize, tobacco, bajra, jowar, moong, mash, masoor, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, barley, gram, groundnut, sesanum, sugarbeet, guar seed, linseed, and sunn hemp
Major Fruits Citrus, mangoes, guavas, pomegranate, jaamun, peaches, dates, phalsa, bananas, melon, musk melon, and water melon
Major Vegetables Potatoes, onions, turnips, carrots, cauliflower, okra, garlic, chilies, tomatoes, peas, coriander, radish, fenugreek, cabbage, brinjal, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, and tinda
Forests (area)[12] 3,000 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Road[14] 2,750.0 km
National Highways[15] 112.0 km
Motorways[16]  – km
Provincial Roads[17]  2596.5 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] 41.4 km
No. of Grid Stations[19] 07 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 220 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 21 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 300 lines to 8,248 lines
Industrial Zones[21] 2 Small Industry Estates, and 263 small, medium, and large enterprises
Major Industry[22] Agricultural Implements 64 Units
Cotton Ginning and Pressing 60 Units
Cold Storage 46 Units
Flour Mills 21 Units
Rice Mills 20 Units
Textile Spinning 12 Units
Household Size[23] 7.1 Persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 12.03%
Houses with Electricity[25] 56.42%

Table 1.1 Khanewal District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics report 4,000 HA under forests.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-investment Study, Khanewal District 2012; Latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-investment Study, Khanewal District 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-investment Study, Khanewal District 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-investment Study, Khanewal District 2012; please see section on industry for a detailed listing of industry by type and number of units

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage Sites and Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

At the time of Partition, Khanewal district was a subdivision of Multan district; it was upgraded to district on 1st July, 1985. Thus, it shares most of its early history with Multan, which has been described in detail in the chapter on Multan. Here, only a brief history of its tehsils—Khanewal and Mian Channu—has been included.

Khanewal

Khanewal is believed to have been named after the Daha Rajputs who claimed descent from Daha, a Muslim Saint settled in Kohna (now a city in Khanewal district), during the rule of Diwan Sawan Mal of Multan in 1821. The Daha Rajputs used Khan as part of their name and became influential in the area, founding the city that became known as Khan-i-Wal, after Khan Daha, the chief of the Daha tribe. This name later became Khanewal. Khanewal was a small village when Punjab was annexed by the British in 1849. In 1904, a railway line connecting Multan and Lyallpur (now Faisalabad) was established and a junction station was built at Khanewal. This junction added value to the area, and the British laid the foundations of a well-planned city in the region. The railway junction for the Wazirabad-Khanewal railway line continues to provide connections to the port city of Karachi via Lahore.

Mian Channu

The name of the city, Mian Channu (a tehsil headquarter), is ascribed to a Muslim Saint, Hazrat Baba Mian Channu, who was born in the region; he lived and died in the city.

Tulamba city of Mian Channu tehsil is more than 2,500 years old. It provided a resting place to the armies of all invaders coming into India from the north and west on their way to Multan. According to the District Gazetteer of Multan “the present town appears to have been preceded by at least two previous sites, one of which was at the huge mound known as Manu Sher, a mile or so to the southwest of the present town and the other among the ruin which extends immediately to the west” (p. 291).  The Gazetteer also shows that “according to some local traditions, the foundations of the city are ascribed to Raja Tal a descendant of Raja Sulivahan of Sialkot from which the fort was called ‘Tal Ubha’ or Northern Tal” (p. 291). The city’s location on the east bank of the Ravi and the presence of ruins of a fort are considered proof of this legend.

Many centuries later, the city gave stiff resistance to Amir Taimur on his way to Delhi. According to Taimur’s memoirs, he had halted in the region but was not welcomed by the local people who put up resistance to Taimur’s Generals, Amir Shah Malik and Shaikh Mohammad. Taimur’s army suffered many losses, but finally succeeded in capturing the area. District Gazetteer Multan 1901-02 records Taimur’s account; according to Taimur, Amir and Shaikh slaughtered 2,000 Indians, enslaving their women and children (p. 292).

Archaeological finds[1] around Tulamba have shown that there were 5 distinct eras in the city’s history. The first era belongs to the Moi (Mauryans) tribe. The remaining 4 belong to the Greek, Sassanid, Buddhist, Hindu, and Muslim civilizations. According to the District Gazetteer of Multan “the traveler Mason who was here in 1827 identified this city with the Brahaman city of Arrain” (p. 293).

Sher Shah Suri built a fort in Tulamba City, the ruins of which are still present. This is a small fort, in the shape of a circle with a diameter of 140 m and covering an area of 3.5 acres. At present, this fort is mainly occupied by a Government Girls School and municipal offices, but there are some houses inside the fort as well.

From the beginning of the 7th century Rajput kingdoms dominated the eastern portions of Pakistan and northern India. In 997 AD, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktigin. In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul and followed the conquest with the conquests of some western Punjab regions. The eastern regions of Punjab, from Multan to Rawalpindi in the north, remained under Rajput rule until 1193. The Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire later ruled the region.

During the Mughal era Khanewal enjoyed peace and harmony, but during the declining years of the Mughal dynasty, this region was conquered and brought under Sikh rule by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The region was taken over from Ranjit Singh by the British.

Khanewal district was created in 1985 out of 2 tehsils: Kabirwala and Mian Channu of Multan district. Presently, the district is comprised of 4 tehsils.

Khanewal district is home to diverse religions, followers of which coexist peacefully. There are Hindu places of worship along with tombs of Muslim Sufi saints. Kabirwala city is the seat of Hazrat Baba Pir Kabir, and the historic tomb of Hazrat Khaliq Wali, is located in Mauza Khati Chore, along the Multan-Sarai Sidhu Road, 24 km west of Kabirwala city. The famous saint Abdul Hakim and his tomb is also located in the city of Abdul Hakim. A more recent shrine, that of Hazrat Molana Muhammad Abdul Ghaffar Chishti Khalifa Majaz Hazrat Sufi Muhammad Iqbal Chishti, is also located in the city along with many shrines of relatively less famous (but still revered) saints.

Kabirwala city is the seat of the third biggest Madrassah (Islamic School) of Deobandi origin, called Darr-ul-aloom Eid Gah, Kabirwala. This was established in the 1950s and since its establishment, the school has produced thousands of Islamic scholars, graduates, Muftis, and Imams who have attended the institute from all over the country. Likewise, religious schools of Barelvi and Shiite sects are also operating in the city.

Besides being a center for Islamic education, Kabirwala is also historically popular for having 2 Hindu Shamshan Ghaats (sacred places dedicated to the cremation of the followers of Hinduism)¾Ram Chotra and Lachman Chotra¾along the bank of Ravi river. A Hindu Temple (Mandar) is located in Sarai Sidhu, a subtown of Kabirwala. Likewise, the Sikh Gurudwara, Pehli Patshahi, is located at Makhdoompur subtown, 12 km from Kabirwala.

Kabirwala region is home to many historically signficant ruins, including those of Ellahabad, Tulamba, Makhdoompur, Hassan Pur and Chak 9/Venohi.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Khanewal district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 4
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 5

Under the Punjab Local Government and Community Development Khanewal District has 1 District Council and 6 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Khanewal
  • Mian Channu
  • Tulamba
  • Kabirwala
  • Jahanian
  • Abdul Hakeem

Administrative Divisions

Khanewal district covers an area of 4,349 km2 and is subdivided into 4 tehsils as follows:

Khanewal Tehsil 25 Union Councils
Kabirwala Tehsil 34 Union Councils
Mian Channu Tehsil 29 Union Councils
Jehanian Tehsil 12 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Khanewal Administrative Divisions

Figure 1.3 Tehsil Municipal Administration Office, Khanewal

Heritage Sites and Tourist Attractions

The following heritage sites of the district are protected under Government of Pakistan Laws:

  • Tomb of Khaliq Walid in Kabirwala: The recently identified tomb of Khaliq or Khalid Walid in Kabirwala tehsil near Multan may be the earliest known Muslim funerary memorial in the subcontinent. It is the only surviving Ghaznavid structure in Pakistan, and thus provides invaluable material for study. The tomb consists of a rectangular, fortified, brick structure measuring about 21 m by 27 m, with inward-sloping, rounded buttresses at each corner, and similar buttresses in the middle of each of the 3 (of 4) outer walls. On the fourth, the west wall, the round buttress is replaced by a rectangular projection marking the mehrab (recessed enclosure marking the direction of the qibla, or Mecca) within. The south and east walls are punctuated by 3 generous windows with pointed arches; the west wall is windowless, while the north wall contains the entrance, placed off-center between two buttresses. A generous flight of steps leads up to the main floor through a gateway; this floor has been raised about 4.5 m (15 feet) above the natural ground level
  • Shrine of Hazrat Hussain Shah
  • Old ruined Mosque in Mauza Khatti Chaar, Kabirwala
  • Shrine of Hazrat Eidan Shah, Jahanian Road

Landmarks

  • One of the oldest landmarks of the district is the Junglewali Kothi, the foundation stone of which was laid in 1913, by Railway Engineer Sir William Roberts[1]
  • Kothi of Amir Bakhsh Khan Bhutta
  • Khanewal Railway station: This is the second largest railway station of Pakistan
  • Tulamba Fort in Tulamba Tehsil, Mian Channu
  • Shrine of Hazrat Husain Shah
  • Old Ruined Mosque, Tehsil Kabirwala
  • Hiraj Fort Kabirwala: This was built and owned by the Hiraj family. The building was constructed by Khan Bahadur Wali Muhammad in 1910

Figure 1.9 Ruins of Tulumba, Khanewal District

Figure 1.10 Hiraj Fort, Kabirwala

[1] Sir William Roberts also established Roberts Cotton Associates, and was instrumental in improving the quality of cotton produced in Khanewal. See section on Agriculture for details

[1] Excavations at Tulamba by M. Rafique Mughal, 1967

Topography

Khanewal district is located in the upper Indus Plains and the physical features of the district are a result of river action. The district is uniformly plain and is 500 m above mean sea level.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The River Ravi flows on the district’s northeast side, and the River Chenab on its north. The Chenab River enters this district at Bhagda village and flows through most of the Kabirwala tehsil. Similarly, both the River Jhelum and River Chenab, after their confluence in Jhang district, enter Kabirwala near Chowki Moohan.

One of the main nullahs of the district is the Nullah Wali Mohammad in the southwestern portion of Kabirwala.

Forests

The following table shows the type and area of forests in the district (Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Total Forest Area 7,796 A Protected Forests (Provincial Govt.) 302 A
Reserved Forests 7,494 A Un-Classed Forests – A
Linear Plantation – km Resumed Lands – HA

Table 1.3 Khanewal Forests

The district mainly has Tropical Thorn Forest types of forests, in which thorny, leguminous species predominate. Trees grown in these forests include shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), kikar (Acacia Arabica), sirin (Albizzia lebbeck), ber (Zizyphus jujube), poplar (Populas alba), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus cineraria), and sambal (Bombax cieba).

Some of the forests of the district include the Khanewal Irrigated Plantation, Rakh Aqil, Rakh Dangra, Pirwala, Miranpur Irrigated Plantation, and Pirowal Wildlife Sanctuary.

Soils

Most of the soil found in the district is alluvial and fertile.

Climate

District Khanewal has an extreme climate. It is very hot in the summer and cold in the winter months. The summer season is lengthy, beginning in April and continuing till October. The hottest months are May, June, and July. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during the summer are 42 °C and 29 °C respectively, but this temperature may go up to 48.4 ºC. The winter is pleasant, with the coldest months being December and January. During this period, the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 21 °C and 5 °C respectively, but can go down to 1 ºC.

The average rainfall in the district is 190 mm, with most of it occurring in the Monsoon months of July, August, and September. The winter rains occur during the months of March and April.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to no damage due to earthquakes.

Population

Population figures for Khanewal district as per the 2017 Census are as follows:

District/Tehsil Area km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Khanewal District 4,349 2,921,986 50.8 49.2 19.3 1.83
Jahannian Tehsil 549 343,361
Kabirwala Tehsil 1,804 959,861
Khanewal Tehsil 784 856,793
Mian Channu Tehsil 1,212 761,971

Table 1.4 Khanewal Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 97.5%
Christians 2.4%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.1%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Khanewal Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 7.8%
Punjabi 81.2%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 1.1%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 5.9%
Others 4.0%[3]

Table 1.6 Khanewal Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[3] Other languages include Brahvi etc.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Khanewal is an agricultural city and is located in Pakistan’s Cotton Belt which is an area that includes Khanewal, Multan and Bahawalnagar, and that is known to produce the finest cotton in the world. However, over the last 40 to 50 years, other industries have also been established in and around the city. Sir William Roberts established[1] cotton trading and ginning installations in the area by introducing a hybrid seed that produced spinnable cotton called KT25. Roberts Cotton Associates (Ltd.) continues to research and develop other hybrid seeds to improve the cotton crop in the region. Another major enterprise of the district is the Brooke Bond tea making factory, which is now owned by Unilever. There are over 900 workers employed by Unilever.

Khanewal is mostly committed to agricultural activities which are the main source of income for the people of the district. Other industries in Khanewal include chemical production and oil extraction. This has added to Khanewal’s economy, growth, and prosperity.

The major employers of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing, etc. (51.1%)
  • Manufacturing Industry (2.2%)
  • Construction (23.7%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail & Hotel/ Restaurant (7.1%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (13.8%)
  • Others (2.1%)

Land Use

The land use statistics of Khanewal district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 are shown in the following table:

Total Area 434,900 HA Reported Area 428,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 355,000 HA Net Sown 328,000 HA
Current Fallow 27,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 73,000 HA
Culturable Waste 29,000 HA Forest Area 4,000 HA

Table 1.7 Khanewal Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture and its allied livestock breeding is the main occupation of the rural areas of this district, with nearly 51.1% of the population engaged in this occupation. Khanewal district belongs to what is known as the Cotton Belt of Pakistan and hence, produces good quality cotton.

Cotton, wheat, sugarcane, rice, maize, tobacco, bajra, jowar, moong, maash, masoor, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, barley, gram, groundnut, sesanum, sugarbeet, guar seed, linseed, and sunn hemp are the major crops of the district.

Major fruits of the district include citrus, mangoes, guavas, pomegranate, jaamun, peaches, dates, phalsa, bananas, melon, musk melon, and water melon.

Major vegetables are potatoes, onions, turnips, carrots, cauliflower, okra, garlic, chilies, tomatoes, peas, coriander, radish, fenugreek, cabbage, brinjal, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, and tinda.

Figure 1.4 Lush Green Fields characteristic of Khanewal District

Figure 1.5 Sunflower Fields, Khanewal District

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is a very important allied activity of the agriculture sector of Pakistan.

The following table shows the livestock population as of 2010 Census of Livestock (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 378,000 Heads Buffaloes 463,000 Heads Sheep 89,000 Heads
Goats 548,000 Heads Camels 171 Heads Horses 2,383 Heads
Mules 290 Heads Asses 16,115 Heads

Table 1.8 Khanewal Livestock Statistics

Nili Ravi and Sahiwal cow, as well as thalli sheep, beetal goat, beetal spotted goat, Daira Din Pannah goat, and nachi goat are all indigenous breeds of livestock in Multan district, as well as Khanewal.

Figure 1.6 Heifers in a Dairy Farm, Khanewal District

Figure 1.7 Dera Din Pannah Goat, Indigenous Breed of Khanewal

Poultry

Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) shows that, in total, there are 540 poultry farms in the district. In addition; according to Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 there are 190 broiler,25 layer and 03 poultry breeding farms in the district (all privately owned).

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in the Pakpattan canal, River Ravi (Kabirwala tehsil), River Chenab (Kabirwala tehsil), River Ravi (Mian Channu tehsil), Sidhnai Canal (Kabirwala tehsil), Sidhnai-Mailsi Link Canal (Mian Channu tehsil), and Nikasu (Kabirwala tehsil ).[2]

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

In Pakistan, honey bee colonies were introduced in the 1980s, and since then more than 300,000 honey bee colonies have been successfully established in Pakistan, including the Khanewal district.

Irrigation

Sidhnai Canal System is the main irrigation source. Its distributaries include Kot Distributary, Korang Distributary, Abdul Hakeem Distributary, Hithar Distributary, and Fazal Shah Distributary, all off-taking from River Ravi at Sidhnai Headworks.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and the area irrigated by each mode as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 521,000 HA Irrigated Area 519,000 HA
Un-Irrigated Area 2,000 HA Canal Irrigated 26,000 HA
Dug Wells 4,000 HA Tube Well Irrigated 22,000 HA
Canal Well Irrigated 6,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 461,000 HA
Others – HA

Table 1.11 Khanewal Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.13 Chak Walidad Distributary, Khanewal

Figure 1.14 Sidhnai Headworks

Minerals and Mining

Minerals are not being mined in the district, but oil and gas mining is being explored.

Industry

Khanewal district is famous for the high quality of the raw cotton as well as its cotton ginning processes.

At present there is 1 industrial estate, established by the Punjab Small Industry Corporation (PSIC) in the district, but there are 263 small, medium, and large industrial units[3] operating in the district. The following table shows the type and number of industries in the district.

Type of Industry Number of Units Type of Industry Number of Units
Agricultural Implements 64 Cold Storage 46
Chip/ Straw board 01 Cotton Ginning & Pressing 60
Beverages 01 Blending of Tea 01
Dairy Products 01 Fruit Juices 02
Flour Mills 21 Industrial Machinery 01
Paper & Paper Board 03 Power Generation 02
Poultry Feed 01 PVC Yarn 01
Rice Mills 20 Seed Processing 03
Solvent Oil Extraction 01 Sugar 01
Textile Made Ups 01 Textile Spinning 12
Textile Weaving 04 Vegetable Ghee/ Oil 02
Wire & Cable 01 Woolen Textile/ Spinning 02
Biscuit 01 Hatchery 04
Cement Products 01 Packages 01
Plastic Products 02 Polypropylene Bags 01
Sizing of Yarn 01

Table 1.9 Khanewal Industries

Trade

The major trade item of the district is cotton. The district trades in industrial products that are produced in the district as well.

Handicrafts

Cotton handloom fabrics, embroidery¾both on cloth and leather¾ as well as handmade shoes and goods made from leather, ropes, mats, and woven baskets are the chief handicrafts of the district.

Figure 1.8 A Brick Kiln in Khanewal

 

Economic Infrastructure

The National Highway N 5 passes through the district. The district headquarter, Khanewal city, is linked with its tehsil headquarters through black topped roads. The district is linked with Multan, Lodhran, Sahiwal, Vehari, and Jhang districts through metalled roads. Khanewal city is also linked with Mian Channu and Jahania through the main railway line. Another railway line connects Khanewal with Faisalabad and Multan.

Roads

Total length of black topped road in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 is 2,749.96 km. The following table shows the type of road and its length in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Roads 2,749.96 km
National Highways 112.0 km
Motorways – km
Provincial Highways 2,596.5 km
Sugar Cess Roads 41.4 km

Table 1.10 Khanewal Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district are:

  • National Highway N 5
  • Expressway E-4, which connects Khanewal and Faisalabad
  • Expressway E-5, which connects Khanewal and Lodhran
  • Motorway M 4, connecting Multan and Faisalabad, also passes through Khanewal
  • Khanewal-Kabirwala Road
  • Khanewal-Abdul Hakeem Road

Rail and Airways

The main Peshawar-Karachi railway line passes through Khanewal district. The district is linked with Multan, Lodhran, Sahiwal, and Jhang districts through the Pakistan Railway network. The Khanewal Railway Station is the second largest railway station of Pakistan.

There is no commercial or military airport/ airbase in the district. The nearest commercial airport is the Multan Airport.

Figure 1.11 Railway Station, Khanewal

Radio and Television

There is one privately owned Radio Station in Khanewal district. Even though there is no TV Station, TV can be viewed through boosters and cable.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines. In all, there are 21 telephone exchanges[1] operating in the district, ranging in capacity from 300 lines to 8,248 lines. In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 195 offices of Pakistan Post in the district, with 70 offices[2] in Khanewal tehsil, 36 in Kabirwala, 87 in Mian Channu, and 02 in Jahanian tehsil.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are 99 branches[3] of various banks in the district, with 35 branches in Khanewal tehsil, 27 in Kabirwala, 25 in Mian Channu, and 12 branches in Jahanian tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have branches in the district:

  • Al-Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd., Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • JS Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 111 branches of various conventional banks and 11 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

There are 07 grid stations[4] ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132KV in the district.

Gas connection for residential purposes is available in all tehsils of the district.

Figure 1.12 Fauji Power Plant at Kabirwala

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 278/452 Middle Schools 151/205
Secondary Schools 110/72 Higher Secondary 18/22
Degree Colleges 14/10 Other Higher Secondary[5] 03/-
Other Degree Colleges[6] 07/07 Technical Training Institutes[7] 04/-
Vocational Institutes[8] -/05 Commercial Training Institutes[9] 03/-
Universities Govt. Mosque Schools -/-
Medical Schools Engineering Schools

Table 1.12 Khanewal Educational Facilities

A large number of private schools and colleges also operate in the district.

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health care services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 09/457 Dispensaries 19/-
Rural Health Centers 07/140 Basic Health Units 83/166
T B Clinics 01/- Mother Child Health Centers 04/-
Private Hospitals NA Private Healthcare Providers[10] NA
Sub-Health Centers -/-

Table 1.13 Khanewal Health Institutions

In addition, there are 45 private hospitals and clinics providing health care in Khanewal district.[11]

Policing

The Deputy Inspector General Police looks after Multan region which comprises of Multan, Vehari, Khanewal, and Lodhran districts. Khanewal district is further subdivided into 04 subdivisions with 18 police stations.[12] The police force in each region is headed by a District Police Officer who is assisted by a varying number of Superintendents and Deputy Superintendents of Police.

[1] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Khanewal District 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Khanewal District 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Khanewal District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study, Khanewal District 2012; Latest available.

[5] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[6] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[7] Pre-investment Study Khanewal District 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[8] Pre-investment Study Khanewal District 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[9] Pre-investment Study Khanewal District 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[10] Three Years Rolling Plan 2010-13; Khanewal District does not provide a list of Private Practitioners in the district

[11] District Health Profile Khanewal, Initiative for Mothers and Newborns USAID, 2005, latest available

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[1] Official website of Roberts Cotton Associates; the land lease has expired, and the website no longer lists this information

[2] Fishing Manual by Fisheries Department Punjab

[3] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-Investment Study, Khanewal District 2012; Latest available.

Environment and Biodiversity

Khanewal district is mostly rural, with only 17.6% of its population living in urban areas. There is very little industrialization, due to which air quality is good. The only source of air pollution in the district is dust and emissions from vehicular traffic.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The principal trees of the district are jhand (Prosopis spicigera), karil (Capparis aphyla), farash (Tamarix articulata) and kikar/babul (Acacia Arabica), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), sirin (Albizzia lebbek), amb or mango (Mangifera indica), neem (Melia indica), pipal (Ficus religosa), khajji or dates (Phenix doctylifera), bhan (Populus euphratica), ber (Zizyphus jujube), toot (Morus alba), bohar (ficus indica), kikar (Prosopis juliflora), aak (Calotrpis procera), aaksan, asgand or Indian ginseng (Withania somnifera), arjun or white marudah (Terminalia arjuna), Bengal fig or barh (Ficus bengalensis), bhang or marijuana (Cannabis sativa), bougainvillea (Bougainvillea glabra), datura or angel’s trumpet (Datura innoxia), eucalyptus or sufaida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), euphorbia (Euphorbia heliscopia), gul bakaoli or water hyacinth (Echornis crassipes), and itsit or hog weed (Boerhavia diffusa).

The grasses of the district include kai (Saccharum spotaneum), kundar (Typha angustata), nar (Phagmites karka), and kana or kans grass (Saccharum munja).

The water bodies of the district include rivers, canals, ponds, and water logged areas. Reeds, water reeds, typha, lotus, water nut, and bladderworts grow in the water bodies of the district. The aquatic flora in the district is usually found in standing water along the canals and fish ponds including Typha angustata, Polygonum flaccidum, Vallisneria spiralis, Potamogeton graminea, P. crispus, Hydrilla verticillata, and Monochoria vaginalis.

Fauna

Wild boars, fox, hare, and jackals are the common mammals found in the forests of the district. House sparrows, bank mynas, cattle egrets, green pigeons, barbets, hornbills, pigeons, kites, crows, doves, and parakeets are the avifauna found in the urban areas.

The Khanewal Irrigated Plantation supports mammals like the jackal, mongoose, jungle cat, hedgehog, five-striped palm squirrel, porcupine, bandicoot or Indian mole rat, soft-furred rat, field mouse, Indian gerbil, and house shrew.

Reptiles found in the district are cobra, saw-scale viper, Russell’s viper, du-muhi, and striped keelback; house gecko and common tree lizard may also be seen in orchards. Monitor lizard and fat-tailed lizard occur in open areas. Two species of freshwater turtles¾Indian soft-shell, and Indian flapshell¾have been reported. They are usually present near the ponds and canals as well as in the fields during the wet season.

The amphibians common to the region are the bullfrog, pahari tidda maindak, and Indus valley toad.

Birds of the district include black and grey partridges, cattle egret, pond heron, common and bank myna, red-vented bulbul, jungle babbler, Blyth’s reed warbler, Indian great reed warbler, black kite, black shouldered kite, koel, black drongo or king crow, common crow, and house sparrow. Common quails visit the area during their spring and winter migrations.

Sidhnai Barrage on the River Ravi is located near Abdul Hakim, but the wetland hardly ever gets migratory waterfowl. Migratory waterfowl may, however, visit the bed of River Ravi near Abdul Hakim in small numbers during the winter.

Aquatic fauna reported from the rivers and canals of the district is mainly fish, including carp fish like mori, thaila, rohu, silver carp, gulpham, and grass carp, as well as catfish like malli, khagga, macchva, sanghara and exotic (now naturalized) tilapia species.

Wildlife Protected Areas and Endangered Species

Following are the Wildlife Protected Areas of the district:

  • Khanewal Irrigated Plantation: This plantation hosts the jackal, mongoose, jungle cat, hedgehog, five-striped palm squirrel, porcupine, bandicoot or Indian mole rat, soft-furred rat, field mouse, Indian gerbil, and house shrew, among other fauna
  • Shujaabad Canal Game Reserve: This reserve provides sanctuary to all game birds
  • Pirowal Wildlife Park (part of Khanewal Irrigated Forest/ Plantation): This park provides sanctuary to spotted deer, chinkara gazelle, pea fowls, doimeselle crane, pheasants, and guinea fowls among others