Punjab-Islamabad

Introduction

The word Islamabad, literally means “the abode of Islam.” The city is the capital of Pakistan, and its official name is Islamabad Federal Capital Territory. It is located between 33° 28Ꞌ to 33° 48Ꞌ north latitudes and 72° 48Ꞌ to 73° 22Ꞌ east longitudes. It is bordered by Haripur district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) in the north and by Rawalpindi district of Punjab on all other sides. The city was planned and developed in its present form by President Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan in 1960. The official announcement of the plan to build the new capital city occured in 1959.

Islamabad at a Glance

Name Islamabad Capital Territory
Headquarter
Population[1] 2,001,579 Persons
Area[2] 906 km2
Population Density 2,209.2 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[3] 4.9%
Male Population[4] 52.6%
Female Population[5] 47.4%
Urban Population[6] 50.6%
Tehsils/ Zones 01 Tehsil: Islamabad Tehsil

08 Zones

1.    Administrative Zone

2.    Commercial District

3.    Education Sector

4.    Industrial Sector

5.    Diplomatic Enclave

6.    Residential Areas

7.    Rural Areas

8.    Green Areas

Main Towns/Areas
Literacy Rate[7] 85%
Male Literacy Rate[8] 91%
Female Literacy Rate[9] 79%
Major Economic Activity[10] Community, Social & Personal Services 55%
Wholesale/ Retail Trade, Restaurant/ Hotel 12%
Construction 11%
Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing 4%

 

Manufacturing 7.0%
Others 11%
Main Crops Wheat, bajra, jowar, maize, maash, masoor, moong, rapeseed, mustard & canola, sesanum, fodder
Major Fruits Citrus, guava, apricot, peach, ber, pear, phalsa, and pomegranate
Major Vegetables Potatoes, garlic, turnip, bottle gourd, okra, brinjal, bitter gourd, cauliflower, peas, chilies, coriander, carrots, and watercress
Forests (area)[11] 11,000 HA
Total Roads[12] 5 km (other data not available)
National Highways[13]  – km
Motorways[14]  5 Km
Provincial Highways[15] – km
Sugar Cess Roads[16] – km
No of Grid Stations[17] Islamabad Electric Supply Company (IESCO) looks after the supply and transmission of electricity to the territory. There are 7 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges Data not available
Industrial Zones[18] Islamabad has 1 zone dedicated to Industrial Development. This zone contains 2 Industrial Estates that are fully occupied and, hence, another Industrial Estate is now being developed.

At present, there are more than 200 manufacturing units

Major Industry[19] Flour mills, steel re-rolling & galvanizing, oil/ ghee mills, pharmaceuticals, electrical machinery, textiles, publishing/ printing paper, and furniture
Household Size[20] 6.2 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[21] 70.1%
Houses with Electricity[22] 91.6%

Table 1.1 Islamabad at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); latest available

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[10] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public.

[11] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19; Land Utilization Statistics.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Environmental & Social Assessment IESCO 2006 Latest available.

[18] Environment Survey Industrial Estates; 2012 latest available

[19] Environment Survey Industrial Estates; 2012 latest available

[20] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[21] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[22] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative UnitsHeritage Sites and Tourist Attractions

Brief History

The site of the city of Islamabad has a history that dates back to the earliest human habitations in Asia. Some of the earliest Stone Age artifacts in the world have been found on the plateau, dating from 1 million to 500,000 years ago. The crude stones recovered from the terraces of the Soan River testify to the endeavors of early humans in the inter-glacial period. Items of pottery and utensils dating back to pre-history have also been found in several areas.

Limited excavations have confirmed the evidence of pre-historic cultures. Relics and human skulls have been found dating back to 5000 BC that show that this region was home to Neolithic humans who roamed the banks of the Soan River. It is estimated that during the Neolithic period, people developed small communities in the region around 3000 BC.

Situated at one end of the Indus Valley Civilization, the area was an early habitation of the Aryan community in Central Asia. Their civilization flourished in the region between the 23rd and 18th centuries BC. Many great armies, such as those of Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, Timur the Lame and Ahmad Shah Durrani/ Abdali used the corridor through the region while planning and executing invasions of the Indian Subcontinent. A Buddhist town once flourished in the region, and the remains of a stupa have been identified in the G-12 Sector of contemporary Islamabad. Modern Islamabad also includes the old settlement of Saidpur.

The British took control of the region, taking it from the Sikhs, in 1849 and built a cantonment in the region in Rawalpindi, which was Asia’s largest cantonment.

At the time of Partition, Karachi had been designated as the capital of Pakistan, but the need for a proper capital was felt soon after independence. In 1959, a high-powered commission was established by President Muhammad Ayub Khan to assess the suitability of Karachi as the national capital and to recommend another site in case of its unsuitability. On the recommendations of this committee, the Government decided in favor of the Potowar areas, and made a public announcement to this effect in June 1959.

After deciding on the site of the new capital, on February 24, 1960, the Government named the new capital Islamabad. The Capital Development Authority (CDA) was established in June 1960 and was entrusted the task of constructing the new capital. The construction commenced in October 1961. Islamabad remains the only planned city in Pakistan.

The town planning of the capital was completed by Constantinos A. Doxiadis and Doxiadis Associates in the late 1950s. He planned the city to be divided into 8 basic zones: Administrative, Diplomatic Enclave, Residential Areas, Educational Sectors, Industrial Sectors, Commercial Areas, Rural, and Green Areas.

Figure 1.3 Islamabad Terrain

Figure 1.4 Foundation Stone of Islamabad

Figure 1.5 General Muhammad Ayub Khan being briefed at the site of the new Capital c1960

Governmental Structure

The Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) is not part of any province.[1] In 1960[2], the land for the proposed capital was acquired from the Government of Punjab and KP (then North West Frontier Province or NWFP); for some time it remained under the administrative control of Rawalpindi district/ Punjab Government, but in 1980 it was separated.

Since January 1, 1981 the administrative functions of the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) have been fulfilled by the Federal Government with direct administration by the President or an administrator appointed by him.[3] The Islamabad Capital Administration and Development department was established in 2010, and assigned all the powers and functions of a Provincial Government. Hence, the Local Government Institutions in the ICT are different from those of other districts of Pakistan.

The Administrator/ Chief Commissioner is supported by the Deputy Chief Commissioner, an Inspector General of Police, a District and Sessions Judge, and their supporting staff.[4]

The ICT is represented in the National Assembly by 2 Members.

The ICT adopted the Islamabad Capital Territory Local Government Act 5 August 2015, according to which there is 1 Municipal Corporation which is directed by a Mayor, who is assisted by a Deputy Mayor. For purposes of governance, the territory has been divided into Union Councils and each Union Council has 13 members categorized as follows:

  • Chairman/ Vice-chairman (joint candidates)
  • 6 general members
  • 2 women
  • 1 peasant or worker
  • 1 youth member
  • 1 non-Muslim

The Chairmen of the 50 Union Councils automatically become the members of the Islamabad Municipal Corporation.

Administrative Units

Islamabad is divided into 1 Tehsil (the Islamabad Tehsil) which is divided into the following administrative units:

Islamabad Urban 27 Union Councils
Islamabad Rural 23 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Islamabad Administrative Units

The territory of Islamabad is divided into 8 zones:

  1. Administrative Zone
  2. Diplomatic Enclave
  3. Residential Areas
  4. Educational Sectors
  5. Industrial Sectors
  6. Commercial Areas
  7. Rural Areas
  8. Green Areas

Each Zone has its own shopping area, a green belt (which goes across the whole zone/ sector in a straight line) and a public park.

Heritage Sites and Tourist Attractions

The following sites are being protected under Government of Pakistan Laws:

  • Mausoleum of Mehr Ali Shah, Golra Shareef, Sector E-11
  • Pakistan Railways Heritage Museum: this is arailway museum located near Sector E-11 of Islamabad. It is a junction station that has been converted in to a museum in the Rawalpindi Division of Pakistan Railways, located at 608 m (1,994 ft) above sea level, in the southeast of the Margalla Hills and east of the cradle of Gandhara civilization, in the ancient city of Taxila. This museum houses the relics and memorabilia associated with railways dating back to the days of the British Raj
  • Saidpur Village on Khayaban-e-Iqbal, opposite Sector F-6, parallel to Islamabad Zoo: Saidpuris a Mughal-era village on the slopes of the Margalla Hills. The village has relics of various civilizations and dynasties, including the Gandhara, Buddhist, Mughal, Ashoka, Greek, and the colonial. Saidpur Village is supposedly named after Said Khan, the son of Sultan Sarang Khan. The 500 years old village was converted into a place of Hindu worship by a Mughal commander, Raja Man Singh. He constructed a number of small ponds including Rama kunda, Sita kunda, Lakshaman kunda, and Hanuman kunda
  • Pakistan Monument, Zero Point
  • Faisal Mosque at the foot of the Margalla Hills
  • Shrine of Bari Imam Nurpur, Nurpur Shahan village near Diplomatic Enclave: Bari Imam or Shah Abdul Latif Kazmi, is the patron saint ofIslamabad and the greater Potowar region. The shrine was built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Thousands of devotees from across Pakistan attend the annual Urs of Bari Imam. The event is one of the largest religious gatherings held in Islamabad
  • Pakistan’s Museum of Natural History, Shakarparian: Established in 1976, the museum is a publicmuseum of natural history located in  It has exhibits and galleries which display, and provide information about, the ecology, geology, and paleontology of the country. Currently, the museum houses a collection of over 300,000 objects. The museum also acts as a research center and works closely with the Lok Virsa Museum. The museum is managed by the Pakistan Science Foundation, Ministry of Science and Technology
  • Lok Virsa Museum, Shakarparian: This museum houses a sports complex, recreational, and cultural parks. The museum preserves a wide variety of expressions of folk art and the traditional, cultural legacy of Pakistan. It boasts a large display of embroidered costumes, jewelry, musical instruments, woodwork, utensils, and folkloristic objects from the region and other parts of Pakistan
  • Rawal Lake: This is located in an enclosed space between sections of the village Malpur, Bani Gala and Margalla Hills National Park. The area around the park has been planted with flowering trees and laid out with gardens, picnic spots, and secluded paths. It is a paradise for bird watchers as it is home to numerous bird species
  • Rose and Jasmine Gardens: This park houses several varieties of roses and a dozen types of jasmine. Flower shows are held here annually
  • Mughazar mini zoo and children’s park
  • Art Galleries
  • Islamabad Museum
  • Fatima Jinnah Park
  • Chattar Bagh
  • Simli Dam and Lake
  • PharwalaFort: This is a 15th century Gakhar fort, built on the remains of a 10th century Hindu fort, and is located near Islamabad
  • Rawat fort: This fort was built by theGakhars in 16th century and contains the grave of the Gakhar chief, Sultan Sarang Khan
  • The region is home to many Hindu temples that are preserved, showing the history of Hindu civilization and architecture in the region
  • The shrine of the Sufi saint, Pir Mehar Ali Shah,is located at village Golra Sharif. The shrine has been constructed with white marble and depicts a rich cultural heritage. There is a Hindu temple near this shrine, the building of which is well preserved but the pictures depicting the Hindu deities have been washed over. The prayer rooms adjacent to the temple are also in a dilapidated state

Figure 1.7 A Bird’s Eye View of Pakistan Monument

Figure 1.8 Pakistan Monument

Figure 1.9 Pharwala Fort

Figure 1.10 Shah Faisal Mosque Islamabad

Figure 1.11 Centaurus Mall Islamabad

Figure 1.12 Lok Virsa Museum

 

[1] Islamabad Local Government Act 2015, (PIDE, School of Public Policy; Slide Share); the chapter on Islamabad is being included in the Punjab volume as the territory is physically located within Punjab, though it is administratively separated from Punjab province

[2] Official Website of Islamabad Capital Territory

[3] 1998 Census Report latest available, 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[4] 1998 Census Report, Islamabad Capital Territory; latest available, 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Topography

The terrain of the metropolitan area of Islamabad/ Rawalpindi consists of mountains and plains.

Mountains

The northern part of the metropolitan area is in the mountainous terrain of the Margalla Hills, which are a part of the Lower and Outer Himalayas. These also include the Hazara and Kala Chitta Ranges. The Margalla Hills reach 1,600 m altitude near Islamabad, and consist of many ridges. Tilla Charouni, at 1,604 m (5,263 ft), is the highest point of Margalla Hills in the Islamabad Territory.

The Murree and Kotli Sattian Hills are on the east of the Capital Territory.

Plains

South of the Margalla Hills is a southward-sloping piedmont area which is generally low in elevation and dominated by extensive plains of windblown silt. The piedmont area also includes many ridges and valleys that have been buried by alluvial deposits from the hills. The southern portion of the city is an undulating plain, and is drained by the Korung River, on which the Rawal Dam is located.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The main river of the Capital Territory is the Korung River on which the Rawal Dam is situated. The Korung River enters the capital near Chattar Park and joins River Soan near Humak after passing through the rural areas of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The Leh Nullah originates from the Margalla Hills and passes through the urban areas of the capital. There are a large number of tributaries of the Leh Nullah which join it at various places. Gumareh Kas stream originates from the Murree hills and joins Soan River after traversing the rural parts of the territory. Mirza Ling River joins the Soan at Sihala.

Rawal and Simli Lakes are important man-made lakes in the territory.

Forests

An area of 11,000 HA is forested in the district. Most of the forests of the district belong to the arid Sub-Tropical Forest Eco Zone. The main forest area is the Margalla Hills Forest and National Park. The dominant species include kao or wild olives (Olea cuspidata), phulai (Acacia modesta), bhaikar or Malabar nut (Adhatoda vasica), granda or wild karonda (Carissa opaca) and sanatha (Dodonaea viscosa).

The vegetation above 1,000 m elevation falls in the Sub-Tropical Chir Pine Zone and comprises of pure stands of chir (Pinus roxburghii).

Data on forest area by jurisdiction and enactment for Islamabad is not available in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19.

Figure 1.6 A view of Margalla Hills National Park Islamabad

Soils

The soils are mostly alluvial or gravel caps.

Climate

Islamabad has a humid subtropical climate with 5 seasons: winter (Nov−Feb), spring (March−April), summer (May−June), rainy monsoon (July−August) and autumn (September−October). The hottest month is June, with mean maximum and minimum temperatures at 40 °C and 24 °C respectively. The coldest month is January, during which the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 17.7 °C and 2.6 °C respectively. The temperatures vary according to the location.

The wettest month is July, with heavy rainfall, evening thunder storms, and the possibility of cloudburst. Hail storms also occur. In the hills, there is sparse snowfall in winter. The mean average rainfall in the territory is 1,143 mm.

Seismic Activity

The territory is situated in the Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means moderate to no damage due to earthquakes.

Population

The following table shows the population of the Capital Territory and its tehsils as per the 2017 Census:

Tehsil/ Taluka Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Islamabad 906 2,001,579 52.6 47.4 49.4 4.9

Table 1.3 Islamabad Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 95.5%
Christians 4.1%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.3%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.4 Islamabad Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 10.1%
Punjabi 71.6%
Sindhi 0.6%
Pushto 9.5%
Balochi 0.1%
Seraiki 1.1%
Others 7.0%

Table 1.5 Islamabad Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made Public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made Public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Islamabad is the Federal Capital of Pakistan and contributes nearly 1% to Pakistan’s GDP. The Islamabad Stock Exchange, founded in 1989,[1] is Pakistan’s third largest stock exchange after Karachi Stock Exchange and Lahore Stock Exchange. Islamabad has seen an expansion in information and communications technology with the addition of 2 Software Technology Parks which house numerous national and foreign technological and IT companies. Most of Pakistan’s state-owned companies like PIA, PTV, PTCL, OGDCL, and Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd. are based in Islamabad. The city is home to many branches of Karachi-based companies, banks, and TV channels. The headquarters of all major telecommunications operators such as PTCL, Mobilink, Telenor, Ufone, and China Mobile are also located in Islamabad.

According to the 1998 Census; (2017 Census data has not been made Public yet), the major employers in the territory include:

  • Community, Social & Personal Services (55%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail Trade, Restaurant/ Hotel (12%)
  • Construction (11%)
  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing (4%)
  • Manufacturing (7.0%)
  • Others (11%)

Agriculture

The district falls under the barani (rain-fed) Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan and relies mostly on rain water for its agriculture. Wheat, bajra, jowar, maize, maash, masoor, moong, rapeseed, mustard & canola, sesanum, and fodder are some of the crops of the territory.

The main fruits grown in the area are citrus, guavas, apricot, pear, peach, ber, phalsa, and pomegranate.

Main vegetables include potatoes, garlic, turnip, bottle gourd, okra, brinjal, bitter gourd, cauliflower, peas, chilies, coriander, carrots, and watercress.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of Islamabad as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 90,600 HA Reported Area 93,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 48,000 HA Net Sown 22,000 HA
Current Fallow 26,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 45,000 HA
Culturable Waste 2,000 HA Forest Area 11,000 HA

Table 1.6 Islamabad Land Use Statistics

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the livestock population of Islamabad as of the 2010 Livestock Census:[2]

Cattle 44,000 Heads Buffaloes 50,000 Heads Sheep 1,000 Heads
Goats 86,000 Heads Camels 90 Heads Horses 782 Heads
Mules 11 Heads Asses 2,349 Heads

Table 1.7 Islamabad Livestock Statistics

Dhanni cow, salt range sheep and teddy goats are native breeds of Rawalpindi district and can be taken as native breeds of Islamabad as well.

Poultry

According to Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19, there are 289 broiler, 159 layer, 110 poultry breeding farms in the Territory. There are 180 Government-owned poultry farms in the territory.[3]

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in Rawal and Simli Dam Reservoirs.[4] This fish is consumed locally.

Bee Keeping

Commercial bee keeping is carried out in various forests and farms in the territory.

Irrigation

The Capital Territory belongs to the barani (rain-fed) Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture mostly depends on rains.

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and the area irrigated by each mode as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 22,000 HA Irrigated Area – HA
Un-Irrigated Area 22,000 HA Canal Irrigated – HA
Dug Wells – HA Tube Well Irrigated – HA
Canal Well Irrigated – HA Canal Tube Wells – HA
Others – HA

Table 1.9 Islamabad Irrigation Statistics

Minerals and Mining

There is no mining activity in the Capital Territory.

Industry

Islamabad has 1 zone dedicated to Industrial Development. This zone contains 2 Industrial Estates that are fully occupied and, hence, another Industrial Estate is now being developed. The following table shows the type and number of industries in the capital:[5]

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
Flour Mills 93 Galvanizing Mills 02
Steel Re-Rolling 27 Oil & Ghee Mills 06
Marble Cutting & Polishing 31 Pharmaceuticals 19
Agricultural Chemicals 05 Cable 03
Carpets 11 Paper Products 01
PVC Pipes 03 Textile 05

Table 1.8 Islamabad Industries

Handicrafts

No major handicrafts are created in the territory.

 

Economic Infrastructure

The Capital Territory has a good road infrastructure and is well connected by roads and air to the rest of the country. The road network of the territory consists of highways, main roads, and service roads.

Roads and Transport

Road statistics are not available.

Some of the important roads of the Capital Territory include:

  • National Highway N 5
  • Link Road Lahore-Islamabad Motorway M 2
  • National Highway N 75 (Islamabad-Kohala)
  • National Highway N 80 (Islamabad-Kohat)
  • Islamabad Highway/ Expressway
  • Kashmir Highway (Previously Murree Highway)

Rail and Airways

The territory is not linked by rail. There is a railway station at Margalla but that is not used for passengers, as it serves for transportation of goods to other parts of Pakistan.

There is an international airport in the capital called Benazir International Airport.

Radio and Television

There are a number of privately-owned radio channels in Islamabad. There are 2 FM and 7 SW Stations owned by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation.

Telecommunications

No statistical data is available but, as stated earlier, the headquarters of all major telecommunications operators such as PTCL, Mobilink, Telenor, Ufone, and China Mobile are located in Islamabad.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Pakistan Post has its headquarters in Islamabad. There are 59 Branches of Pakistan Post[1] working in the capital. Most of the major courier services of Pakistan provide services in the district.

Banking/ Financial Services

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have their branches in the territory:

  • Al-Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Falah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Barclays Bank Ltd.
  • Burj Bank Ltd.
  • City Bank Ltd.
  • Duetsche Bank AG Ltd.
  • Dubai Islamic Bank Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • First Women Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Metropolitan Bank Ltd.
  • HSBC Bank Middle East Ltd.
  • Industrial & Commercial Bank of China Ltd.
  • Industrial Development Bank Ltd.
  • J S Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank
  • Samba Bank Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • Sindh Bank Ltd.
  • SME Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Standard Chartered Bank
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 389 branches of various conventional banks and 144 branches of various Islamic banks in the Capital Territory.

Electricity and Gas

Islamabad Electric Supply Company (IESCO)[2] looks after the supply of electricity in the district. There are 7 grid stations ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV.

Natural gas is also available.

Education

The literacy rate of Islamabad is the highest in Pakistan at 72% with 80.6% males and 62.4% women being literate. The total number of higher education institutions (Universities) is also the highest. Some of the best educational institutes are located in Islamabad. The following table shows the number of government educational institutes in the district as per Pakistan Education Statistics 2016-17:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility Boys/Girl
Primary Schools[3] 112/79 Middle Schools 23/37
Secondary Schools 45/52 Higher Secondary 30/35
Degree Colleges 02/08 Technical Training 07/08/05
Vocational Institutes 21/69/08 Commercial Training NA
University[4] 30 Medical College[5] 08
Agriculture College Engineering Schools 20

Table 1.10 Islamabad Government Educational Institutes

In addition, there are privately-owned institutes in Islamabad as follows[6]:

Facility Boys/Girls/Co-Ed Facility Boys/Girls/Co-Ed
Pre-Primary -/-/47 Primary Schools 4/1/376
Middle Schools 01/02/411 High Schools 7/5/251
Higher Secondary 06/09/126 Degree Colleges -/03/07

Table 1.11 Islamabad Private Educational Institutes

Figure 1.13 Allama Iqbal Open University, (AIOU) Islamabad

Figure 1.14 Pakistan Institute of Health Sciences (PIMS)

Health

The Ministry of Health has its head office in Islamabad. The major roles of this Ministry are national planning and policy formulation, plus regulation and standardization; medical education; research; preventive and infectious disease control; and curative healthcare. In Pakistan, the health care system is a four-tier system as follows:

  • Outreach and community-based services that focus on immunization, sanitation, malaria control, maternal child health, and family planning
  • Primary Health Care facilities that include Basic Health Units (BHUs) and Rural Health Centers (RHCs)
  • Secondary Health Facilities that include Tehsil and District Hospitals
  • Tertiary care hospitals located in major cities

In Islamabad, the H-Sectors are mostly dedicated to educational and health institutions. Islamabad has the lowest rate of infant mortality in the country at 38 deaths per 1,000 compared to the national average of 78 deaths per 1,000. Islamabad has both public and private medical centers. The largest hospital in Islamabad is the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) hospital. It was established in 1985 as a teaching and doctor training institute. PIMS now functions as a National Reference Center and provides specialized diagnostic and curative services. Some of the important hospitals are in Islamabad as follows:

  • Islamabad General Hospital: A major component of PIMS and has 592 beds
  • Children Hospital: 230 beds
  • Maternal & Child Health Care (MCHC) System: 125 beds
  • Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) General Hospital: 100 beds
  • Shifa International Hospital: A teaching Hospital with 150 beds

The following table shows the number of health institutions in the Federal Capital as per Year Book 2019 and the official website of Islamabad Capital Territory:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 09/ NA Dispensaries 81/NA
Rural Health Centers 03/NA Basic Health Units 12/NA
T B Clinics Mother Child Health Centers 04/-
Private Dispensaries/ Hospitals 14/- Sub-Health Centers
No. Of Beds In Hospitals/ Dispensaries 2,571

Table 1.12 Islamabad Health Care Institutes

Policing

All policing matters of the Capital Territory are managed by the Central Police Office (CPO) established in 1981. This CPO controls 3 divisions (Capital City Police, Islamabad Traffic Police, and Capital Security Police), 4 zones, 7 circles, and 22 police stations.[7]

The Inspector General Police (IGP) stationed at Islamabad is in charge over all. There are 3 Deputy Inspector General (DIGs), one each of Operations, Head Quarters and Security. These DIGs co

[1] Pakistan Post Official Website; retrieved on Feb 2015

[2] Social & Environmental Assessment IESCO by Elan Partners (PVT) Ltd. 2007 latest available.

[3] Includes Mosque schools

[4] 24 Public Sector Universities and 6 Private Sector Medical colleges, 01 Public Sector & 5 in Private Sector.

3 are still Un-recognized

[5] 24 Public Sector Universities and 6 Private Sector Medical colleges, 01 Public Sector & 5 in Private Sector.

3 are still Un-recognized

[6] Pakistan Education Statistics 2016-17

[7] Islamabad Police Official website

[1] http://www.ostamyy.com/stock-exchanges/Pakistan.htm

[2] Included in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[3] Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock)

[4] Fisheries Manual by Fisheries Department Punjab

[5] All data has been compiled from Official Websites of various mill associations

Environment and Biodiversity

The city is a well-planned area and thus, the natural flora of the area has remained somewhat intact. It has further been enriched by the introduction of a great number and variety of ornamental trees. Generally, the environment of the capital is clean and dominated by greenery.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Some of the trees commonly found in the Capital Territory are khiar or katha/cutch tree (Acacia catechu), valaiti kikar or mimosa bush (Acacia farnesiana), phulai or Arabic gum (Acacia modesta), kikar or babul (Acacia nilotica), bankhor or horse chestnut (Aesculus indica), kachnar or orchid tree (Bauhinia variegata), silk cotton tree or simal (Bombax ceiba), paper mulberry or kaghazi toot (Broussonetia papyrifera), palas or dhak or flame of the forest (Butea monosperma), bottle brush (Callistemon citrinus), amaltas or golden shower tree (Cassia fistula), deodar or Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara), lasura or clammy cherry (Cordia obliqua), bohr or bargad/ banyan (Ficus benghalensis), peepal (Ficus religiosa), silky oak or shah baloot (Grevillea robusta), nila gul mohar or green ebony (Jacaranda mimosifolia), Himalayan walnut or akhrot (Juglans regia), China berry or bakain (Melia azedarach), sohanjna or drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera), wild olives or kau (Olea ferruginea), toot or mulberry (morus alba), aru or peach (Prunus persica), Himalayan blue pine or biar (Pinus wallichiana), amla or goose berry (Phyllanthus emblica), chir pine (Pinus roxburghii), oriental plane or chinar (Platanus orientalis), oak or shah baloot (Quercus leucotrichophora), baid majnu or weeping willow (Salix babilonica), and a kind of ber (Zizyphus oxyphylla).

Shrubs of the territory include kashmal or sumbul (Berberis lyceum), aak or Sodom apple (Calotropis procera), karir or kair (Capparis deciduas), bhan or smoke tree (Cotinus coggyria), chajul or Himalayan wild rhea (Debregeasia saeneb), sanatha or hop bush (Dodonaea viscosa), crown-of-thorns (Euphorbia milii), danda thor or royles spurge (Euphorbia royleana), kainthi or indigo bush (Indigofera heterantha), karwara or black berry (Rubus fruticosus), and ban gulab or Himalayan musk rose (Rosa macrophylla).

Herbs, climbers and grasses include yarrow or akarkara (Achillea millefolium), dhabbar or blue pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), pila dhatura or prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana), itsit or wasau (Boerhavia procumbens), arhar or pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), lehli or bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), gul-i-ashrafi or field marigold (Calendula arvensis), arvi or elephant’s ear (Colocasia esculenta), dhatura or thorn apple (Datura stramonium), mewa or wild strawberry (Fragaria nubicola), kahu or prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola), choa or hath jori/ tiger’s claw (Martynia annua), kanwal or water lily (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn), mirchi or evening primrose (Oenothera rosea), khatti booti or yellow wood sorrel (Oxalis corniculata), harmal (Peganum harmala), sanp ki boti or cobra plant (Sauromatum venosum), dandelions (Taraxacum officinale), mulim or climbing lily (Gloriosa superb), kurie or Himalayan ivy (Hedera nepalensis), bindweed or morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), sufaid bail or bridal wreath (Porana paniculata), jungle gulab or Himalayan musk rose (Rosa brunonii), khabbal (Cynodon dactylon), palwa (Dicanthium foveolatum), and dila (Phragmites karka).

Fauna

The Margalla Hills National Park is home to monkeys, jackals, wild boars, porcupine, mongoose, pangolin, Asiatic leopard, leopard cat, grey goral sheep, barking deer, chinkara gazelle, red fox, yellow-throated martin, and fruit bats, among others.

Avifauna includes Himalayan griffon vulture, laggar falcon, peregrine falcon, kestrel, Indian sparrow hawk, Egyptian vulture, white-cheeked bulbul, yellow-vented bulbul, paradise flycatcher, black partridge, cheer and khalij pheasants, golden oriole, spotted and collared doves, larks, shrikes, wheat eaters, and buntings. Rawal Lake attracts a large number of birds which include mallards, grebes, cormorants, herons, egrets, common teal, kites, shikra, long legged kestrel, grey francolins, water hens, Eurasian coots, lapwings, hoopoes, wood peckers, sand martins, king fishers, thrush, warblers, great tit, and babblers,.

Reptilian fauna include Russell’s viper, Indian cobra, Himalayan pit viper, and saw-scaled viper.

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Fauna

Only one wildlife protected area is located in Islamabad: the Margalla Hills National Park. The Rawal Lake Game Reserve is part of Margalla Hills National Park. These provide sanctuary to nearly all the mammals, reptiles, and game birds found there.