Punjab-Kasur

Introduction

Kasur district is located between 30° 40′ to 31° 20′ north latitudes and 73° 38′ to 74° 41′ east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by Lahore district, on the east and southeast by India, on the southwest by Okara and on the northwest by Sheikhupura district. Kasur belongs to the Majha region of Punjab; historically, Majha was comprised of the older, settled, parts of the Bari Doab.[1] Major Pakistani towns in the Bari Doab region are Narowal, Lahore, Kasur, Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahib, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Wazirabad, Gujrat, and Tarn Taran Sahib. The people hailing from Majha are referred to as Majhis (or Majhhis).

Figure 1.3 View of a Village, Kasur District

District at a Glance

Name of District Kasur District
District Headquarter Kasur City
Population[2] 3,454,996 persons
Area[3] 3,995 km2
Population Density[4] 887.2 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[5] 2.0%
Male Population[6] 51.3%
Female Population[7] 48.7%
Urban Population[8] 25.8%
Tehsils/towns 04 Tehsils:

1.    Kasur

2.    Pattoki

3.    Kot Radha Kishan

4.    Chunian

Main Towns Kasur, Pattoki, Chunian, Mustafa Abad, Ganda Singh Wala, Noorpur, Pial Kalan, Kot Radha Kishan, Gohar, Fatehpur, Khudian Khas, Raja Jang, Kanganpur, Phool Nagar, Bhaipheru, and Usman Wala
Literacy Rate[9] 59%
Male Literacy Rate[10] 66%
Female Literacy Rate[11] 54%
Major Economic Activity[12] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing etc. 31.9%
Manufacturing 7.6%
Construction Laborers 39.1%
Wholesale/ Retail, Hotels/ Restaurant 8.3%
Community, Social & Personal Services 7.3%
Others 5.8%
Main Crops Sugarcane, wheat, rice, maize, cotton, jowar, bajra, moong, masoor, maash, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, barley, gram, sesanum, guar seed, linseed, and sun hemp
Major Fruits Citrus, guavas, mango, peach, jaamun, phalsa, leechee, bananas, plum, pomegranates, pears, and apricots
Major Vegetables Potatoes, onions, carrots, cauliflower, garlic, okra, turnips, bottle gourds, peas, brinjal, chilies, tomatoes, chilies, coriander, mint, and turmeric
Forests (area)[13] 6,000 HA[14]
Total Black Topped Roads[15] 2,893.3 km
National Highways[16] 53.13 km
Motorways[17] – Km
Provincial Roads[18] 2,630.4 km
Sugar Cess Roads[19] 209.8 km
No. of Grid Stations[20] 13 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 220 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[21] 50 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 48 lines to 5,734 lines
Industrial Zones[22] 1 Small Industrial Estate and 689 small, medium, and large enterprises in both the estate and other parts of the district
Major Industry[23] Tannery 364 Units
Textile 196 Units
Power Generation 10 Units
Knitted Textile 10 Units
Flour Mills 12 Units
Chemicals 15 Units
Rice mills 13 Units
Household Size[24] 7.0 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[25] 19.8%
Houses with Electricity[26] 81%

Table 1.1 Kasur District at a Glance

[1] Bari Doab is the largest part of the Majha region, and is the area between River Ravi and River Beas.

[2] 20177 Census

[3] 1998 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] 2017 Census

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available

[10] PSLM

[11] PSLM

[12] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[13] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[14] Land Utilization Statistics also reports 6,000 HA under forests.

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[20] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Kasur District; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Kasur District; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Kasur District; Latest available.

[23] Directorate of Industries Punjab: Pre-investment Study 2012, Kasur District; for a detailed list of units, please see the section on Industry

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[26] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief History of the District

The Imperial Gazetteer of India, while discussing the earlier history of Kasur and its surrounding region, shows that:

Kasur is a place of great antiquity and General Cunningham identified it with one of the places visited by the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang in the seventh century AD. A Rajput city seems to have occupied the modern site before the earliest Mohammadan invasion, but Kasur does not appear in history until late in Mohammadan Period, when it was settled by a Pathan colony from east of the Indus. (v.15, p.149)

The Imperial Gazetteer of India: Provincial Series attributes the naming and foundation of the town of Kasur to Kusa, the son of Rama and brother of Loh or Lova. Loh (or Lova) is said to have been the founder of Lahore.

According to popular belief, the town was founded by the Pathan families of Kandahar during the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar. It is known that the Pathans constructed about 12 small forts, all named after the heads of various families; these forts were known as kots. These kots and their names are still extant. In Arabic, the word for kot or fort is kasr (Qasr) the plural of which is kasur (Qasur). Thus, it is possible that the city/ district (Kasur) derives its name from these kots/ kasur built by the Pathans.

Kasur is one of the oldest cities of Pakistan. In antiquity, it was just a small settlement, with katcha houses (mud houses) on the northern bank of the old River Beas. After the invasions by Alexander the Great in 327 BC, the area was successively ruled by the Maurya Empire (322-185 BC), Indo-Greek Kingdom (155-130 BC), Indo Scythian (or the Sakas, from middle of the 2nd century BC to 1st century BC), Indo Parthian Kingdom (20 AD to 250 AD), Kushan Dynasty (60 AD-375 AD), White Huns (455-533 AD), Kabul Shahis (500-1020/1026 AD), and the Delhi Sultanate.[1]

In 1020 AD, Kasur was included in the territory of Lahore, which was the capital of the State ruled by Raja Jaipal. When Emperor Babar captured India in 1526 AD, he gave this city to the Afghans (Pathans) as a reward for their services which contributed to his victory; these Pathans constructed the forts or kots/ kasur that gave the city its name.

During the reign of Mughal Emperors Shahjahan and Aurangzeb, Kasur was glorified, and every rich man constructed his own palace in the city. In 1830 Maharaja Ranjit Singh captured Kasur and it was during the Sikh rule, in the year 1849, when the British took over control of Punjab.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India describes the Sikh conquests of the region as follows:

When the Sikhs rose to power they experienced great opposition from the Pathans of Kasur, and though the chiefs of the Bhangi Confederacy stormed the town in 1763 AD, and again in 1770, and succeeded in holding the entire principality, the Pathan leaders re-established their independence in 1794 and resisted many subsequent attacks. In 1807 Qutb-ud-Din Khan the last Pathan chieftain was forced to give way before Maharaja Ranjit Singh and retired to his property in Mamdot, beyond Sutlej. The town of Kasur was then incorporated in the kingdom of Lahore. (v.15, p.149)

Kasur was annexed into the British Raj in 1849. In 1867, the British constituted the Municipality of Kasur. It remained a tehsil of Lahore district with an Extra Assistant Commissioner in charge of the subdivision.

Kasur remained a tehsil of Lahore district till July 1, 1967, when Kasur and Chunian Tehsils were detached from Lahore and formed into one district. In the 1990s, Chunian tehsil was divided into 2 tehsils: the Chunian and Pattoki tehsils. In 2008, another town, Kot Radha Kishan of Kasur tehsil, was notified as a tehsil. Now the district is comprised of 4 tehsils.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Ganda Singh Wala (a border village in Kasur) was the principal road crossing between India and Pakistan, but was replaced by the border crossing at Wagah which is further north of Kasur district, in Lahore.

Figure 1.4 Ganda Singh Wala Border, Kasur

Figure 1.5 Gurdwara Sahib, Daftu, Kasur

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Kasur district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 5
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 10

Under the Local Government and Community Development Kasur district has 1 District Council and 10 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Kasur
  • Kot Radha Kishan
  • Pattoki
  • Chunian
  • Mustafa Abad
  • Phool Nagar
  • Khundian
  • Raja Jung
  • Kanganpur
  • Ellahabad

Administrative Divisions

Kasur district covers an area of 3,995 km2 and is subdivided into 04 tehsils and 141 Union Councils as follows:

Chunian Tehsil 27 Union Councils
Kasur Tehsil 55 Union Councils
Kot Radha Kishan Tehsil 28 Union Councils
Pattoki Tehsil 31 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Kasur Administrative Divisions

[1] The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim Kingdom based in Delhi. This Sultanate consisted of 5 dynasties: Mamluks (1206-90), Khiljis (1290-1320), Tughlaq (1320-1414), Sayyid (1414-51), and Lodhis (1451-1526)

Heritage/ Cultural Sites and Tourist Attractions

In 1592, 12 principal residential colonies were built under the reign of Mughal Emperor Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar, as a consequence of the special dispensations extended from the Mughals to the Pathans. Each residential colony was situated inside a fort or kot. Each kot in itself is small but together they form a considerable town. The names of the 12 kots or Qasrs (for which it is believed the Kasur district has been named) are:

  • Kot Pacca Qila
  • Kot Nawan Qila
  • Kot Azam Khan
  • Kot Ghulam Mohammad Mohayyudin Khan
  • Kot Murad Khan
  • Kot Haleem Khan
  • Kot PeeraanMohammad Khan
  • Kot Fateh Din Khan
  • Kot Usman Khan
  • Kot Badar-ud-Din Khan
  • Kot Ruken Din Khan
  • Kot Nawab Hussain Khan
  • Qila Ganja Kalan

The ruins of these forts are still extant.

Other important places in Kasur district include:

  • Changa Manga: This is the largest irrigated forest of Pakistan. It houses a tramway which was constructed in 1921 for transporting timber. Now it is a source of recreation. In addition, there are hanging bridges, cafeterias, swimming pools, and amusement parks in the forest
  • Balloki Headworks: The headworks on River Ravi in the Kasur district is a good picnic spot. The area sports a Safari Park and a family resort called Rana Safari Park and Resort, where boat rides can also be enjoyed
  • Ganda Singh Wala Border: The border point is located in Ganda Singh village, which was named after Ganda Singh. The village lies on the border with East Punjab. In the 1960s and 1970s, it was the principal border crossing by road between India and Pakistan, but was replaced by the border crossing at Wagah in Lahore, which is a little further north of Kasur. Since 1970, there has been a daily Retreat Ceremony at the border crossing, similar to the Wagah Border Ceremony. This ceremony is a smaller one, attended mostly by local Punjabis on either side of the border
  • Kasur Museum: This museum showcases handwritten Quran Manuscripts, fossils from Chakwal, jewelry items, and artifacts from the Sikh period as well as photographs related to the Pakistan Movement
  • Sikh Gurdwara: This gurdwara (Sikh temple) is situated in the Moti Masjid Mohalla (locality) of the new Kanganpur city. The domed building of the Gurdwara is very beautiful and strong. This Gurdwara is also known as Gurdwara Principal Sardar Bara Singh Wadhawa
  • Shrine of Baba Kamal Chisti (Protected under Government of Pakistan Laws): According to various traditions, Baba Kamal Chisti was born in a small area near Ferozepur, while others say that he was born in Kasur.His shrine is located near the Kasur Museum, on top of an embankment. People from all over the country visit his shrine daily and an annual Urs is held during which the shrine is visited by people from all over the world
  • Shrine of Hazrat Bulleh Shah (protected under Government of Pakistan Laws): Bulleh Shah was a sufi saint and poet. He was, and still is, one of the most celebrated sufi poets of the region. He died in 1758; his shrine is in the shape of a mosque. Green and white tiles are used in the construction of the shrine
  • Jinno Wali Masjid: The mosque is from the Sher Shah Suri period and is protected under Government of Pakistan Laws

Figure 1.15 Sikh Gurdwara, Kanganpur City

Figure 1.16 Shrine of Baba Kamal Chishti, Kasur

Figure 1.17 Shrine of Bulleh Shah

Figure 1.18 Gurdwara at Lalyani District, Kasur

Figure 1.19 Kasur Museum, Kasur

Figure 1.20 Jinno Wali Masjid, Kasur

Figure 1.21 Tomb of Hazrat Makhdoom Hafiz, Kasur

Topography

The district is bounded by the River Ravi in the northwest and River Sutlej in the southeast. The old course of River Beas bifurcates the district into two equal parts that are locally known as Hithar and Uttar or Mithan Majha and Khara Majha. The low lying or riverine area (Hithar area) is generally inundated during Monsoon season, and the upland area (Uttar area) is a flat plain sloping from northeast to southwest. Both areas have a height differential of approximately 5.5 m. The natural surface elevation of the district is 198 m above mean sea level. The east and west ends of the district comprise the flood plains of River Sutlej and Ravi, characterized by the breaching of looping river channels braided around the meander bars.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The River Sutlej, off-taking from the mountains of Tibet in China, flows through the Indian State of Himachal Pardesh, as well as Haryana and others before entering Pakistan through Kasur district. It flows in the district up to the Sulemanki Headworks, and then flows along the Indo-Pakistan border, before joining the other tributaries of River Indus at Panjnad.

The River Ravi enters Lahore district, and after flowing for 55 km, leaves the district at the borders of Kasur district. These two rivers, thus, form the southeast and northwest borders of the district respectively.

Other smaller perennial rivers of the district include the Rohi Nullah, Katora Nala, Sem Nala, and Ghana Nala.

Ghamaghar Lake is an important brackish water lake in the district. This lake is on the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance.

Forests

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Kasur district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 13,782 A Under Provincial Govt. – A
Reserved Forests District Govt. – A Reserved Forests 13,782 A
Linear Plantation 996 km

Table 1.3 Kasur Forests

The district is home to Irrigated Plantation forests. Changa Manga is the largest irrigated forest of Pakistan and is located in Kasur district. The Changa Manga forest was developed for the production of mulberry timber for the sports industry, and shisham timber for the furniture industry. The poplar tree is also cultivated in the forest.

Most of the Border Belt forests are within the boundaries of the district.

Other Irrigated Plantation forests include Rakh Deosial and Rakh Bhunike.

Figure 1.6 Changa Manga Forest, Kasur

Figure 1.7 Timber Transportation Network, Changa Manga Forest, Kasur

Soils

This soil of the riverine (hithar) area is generally sandy and rich in plant nutrients. The soils of the upland (uttar) area are sandy.

Climate

Kasur district is located in the Semi-Arid Subtropical Climate Zone, where intense summer heat and cold weather are experienced. The summer season starts in April and continues to September, with May-June being the hotter months and June being the hottest. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures for June in Kasur are 40 °C and 27 °C respectively, and the temperature may even go up to 45 °C. The winter season lasts from November to March with January being the coldest month. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during this month are 20 °C and 6 °C respectively.

The Monsoon period is July to September. Average annual rainfall is 500 mm, with more than two-thirds of this rainfall occurring during the Monsoon period.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to no damage due to earthquakes.

Population

The following table shows the population of Kasur district as per the 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Kasur District 3,995 3494,556 51.8 48.2 25.8 2.03
Kasur Tehsil 1,891 1,334,653
Chunian Tehsil 1,212 825,684
Pattoki Tehsil 892 934,329
Kot Radha Kishan Data included in Kasur Tehsil 360,330

Table 1.4 Kasur Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 95.5%
Christians 4.4%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.1%
Scheduled Castes 0.1%
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Kasur Religious Distribution

Languages[2]

Urdu 6.2%
Punjabi 88.2%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 0.1%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.7%
Others 4.7% (includes Brahvi etc.)

Table 1.6 Kasur Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Kasur district is renowned for its hide tanning industry, in addition to the textile and food industries. The major employers of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing etc. (31.9%)
  • Manufacturing (7.6%)
  • Construction Laborers (39.1%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail, Hotels/ Restaurant (8.3%)
  • Community Social & Personal Services (7.3%)
  • Others (5.8%)

Land Use

The following table shows the major land use statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Reported Area 395,000 HA Cultivated Area 323,000 HA
Net Sown 267,000 HA Current Fallows 56,000 HA
Un-Cultivated Area 72,000 HA Culturable Waste 5,000 HA
Forest Area 6,000 HA

Table 1.7 Kasur Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Almost 32% of the total population of the district is engaged in agriculture and its allied livestock breeding. Irrigated areas are irrigated through canals and tube wells. Main crops of the district include sugarcane, wheat, rice, maize, cotton, jowar, bajra, moong, masoor, maash, rapeseed & mustard, sunflower, barley, gram, sesanum, guar seed, linseed, sun hemp, and fenugreek.

Fruits of the district include citrus, guavas, mango, peaches, jaamun, phalsa, leechee, bananas, plum, pomegranates, pears, and apricots.

Main vegetables are potatoes, onions, carrots, cauliflower, garlic, okra, turnips, bottle gourds, peas, brinjal, chilies, tomatoes, coriander, mint, and turmeric.

Figure 1.8 Fenugreek Fields, Kasur

Figure 1.9 Turmeric Plant

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is the second most important economic activity of the district. The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Census of Livestock (as quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 303,000 Heads Buffaloes 779,000 Heads Sheep 95,000 Heads
Goats 309,000 Heads Camels – Heads Horses 4,444 Heads
Mules 3,680 Heads Asses 42,173 Heads

Table 1.8 Kasur Livestock Statistics

Nili Ravi cow and thoroughbred horses are indigenous breeds of the district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) there are 1,081 commercial poultry farms in the district. In addition there are 340 broiler, 50 layer and 08 poultry breeding farms in the district (privately owned)[1].

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in Head Balloki Pond Area, except in the Reserved Areas, as well as Dhand Laloo Khichhi (Chunian tehsil), and Nala Pakkiwala (Chunian tehsil).[2] Most of this fish is consumed locally.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

In Pakistan, honey bee colonies were introduced in the 1980s, and since then more than 300,000 honey bee colonies have been successfully established in Pakistan, including Kasur district.

[1] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[2] Department of Fisheries, Punjab Manual

Irrigation

Canals providing irrigation waters to the district are controlled by the Balloki Headworks on the River Ravi. The Lower Bari Doab Canal and the Balloki-Sulemanki Link Canal irrigate Chunian tehsil. The BRB[1] Link Canal and Depalpur Canal irrigate parts of Kasur and Chunian Tehsils. Besides these, there is a network of distributary canals in the district, notable ones of which are Chaharke Minor, Chaharke Sub-Minor, Katora Branch, Dhing Shah Minor, Chunian Distributary, Dobli Minor, and Mirali Minor.

The following table shows irrigation statistics for Kasur as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Irrigated Area 483,000 HA Un-irrigated Area – HA
Canal Irrigated 190,000 HA Dug Wells Irrigated 2,000 HA
Tube Well Irrigated Area 87,000 HA Canal Wells 10,000 HA
Canal Tube Wells 192,000 HA Others 2,000 HA

Table 1.11 Kasur Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.25 Balloki Headworks, Kasur District

Figure 1.26 BRB Canal in Kasur

[1] BRB Canal stands for Bombawali-Ravi-Bedian Canal.

Minerals and Mining

There are no minerals in the district.

Industry

Punjab Small Industries Corporation (PSIC) has established one Industrial Estate in Kasur district, and there are 689[1] small, medium, and large industrial units in the district. Industry-wise number of units in the district is as follows:

Type of Industry Units Type of Industry Units
A.C./Refrigerators 01 Batteries 02
Chemical 15 Dairy Products 05
Drugs & Pharmaceuticals 06 Flour Mills 12
Fruit Juices 04 GI/MS Pipes 02
Glue 01 Ice Cream 02
Jute Textile 01 Knitted Textile 10
Leather Products 06 Motor Cycle/Rickshaws 02
Paper/Paper Board 08 Paper Cone 01
Pencils/Ball Points 02 Polyester Yarn 02
Poultry Feed 06 Power Generation 10
Rice Mills 13 Sugar 03
Tanneries 364 Tents 06
Textile Composites 08 Textile Made Ups 01
Textile Processing 13 Textile Spinning 103
Textile Weaving (Mill Sector) 71 Tractors 01
Vegetable Ghee/Oil 03 Wire & Cable 03
Zips 01 LPG Gas 01

Table 1.9 Kasur List of Industries

Figure 1.10 Hide Tanning, Kasur

Figure 1.11 Khes Cloth Weaver

Trade

The major exports of the district are leather and leather products, which are traded both nationally and internationally. The district also trades in agricultural produce.

Figure 1.12 Al-Shareef Market, Kasur city

Handicrafts

Handicrafts of the district include handmade gift items such as embroidered clothes, leather goods, handbags, hand woven lungis (a cloth worn as a trouser by men in rural areas of Punjab), durries (a thick bed cover), moorhas (handmade stools), peeras (low stools made with cane and bamboo), and shoes.

[1] Directorate of Industry, Punjab: Pre-investment Study, Kasur District 2012; Latest available.

 

Economic Infrastructure

The district headquarter is linked with its tehsil headquarters and other parts of Pakistan through black topped roads. The district is also linked to other regions via railways.

Roads

Pakistan’s main national highway, the N-5, passes through the Pattoki Tehsil. The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 2893.3 km
National Highways 53.1 km
Provincial Highways 2,630.4 km
Motorways – km
Sugar Cess Roads 209.8 km

Table 1.10 Kasur Road Statistics

Some of the important road links of the district include:

  • Kasur-Raiwind Road
  • Kasur-Depalpur Road
  • Kasur-Ferozepur Road
  • Lahore-Kasur Road
  • Ganda Singh Wala Road
  • Kasur-Pattoki Road

Figure 1.23 Lahore-Kasur Road

Rail and Airways

There are 6 railway stations[1] in the district. All the main towns of the district are connected to each other and the rest of Pakistan by rail, including Lahore and Pakpattan districts.

There is no commercial or military airport/airbase in the district. The nearest airport is the Lahore International Airport (Allama Iqbal International Airport).

Figure 1.24 Kasur Railway Station

Radio and Television

There are 2 privately owned FM Radio Stations in Kasur. Even though there is no TV station in Kasur, TV can be viewed through boosters and cable.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines. In all, there are 50 telephone exchanges operating in the district, ranging in capacity from 48 lines[2] to 5,734 lines. In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are nearly 156 offices[3] of Pakistan Post in the district, with 20 branches in Chunian tehsil, 94 in Kasur, and 42 in Pattoki (Data for Kot Radha Kishan Tehsil is added in Kasur tehsil).

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are a total of 67 branches[4] of various banks in the district, with 16 in Chunian tehsil, 32 in Kasur, and 19 in Pattoki.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches by State Bank of Pakistan 2019, the following banks all have branches in the district:

  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Metropolitan Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 106 branches of various conventional banks and 17 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

There are 13 grid stations[5] in the district, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 220 KV. Natural Gas is available in Pattoki Tehsil.

[1] Pre-Investment Study Kasur District 2012, by Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[2] Pre-Investment Study Kasur District 2012, by Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[3] Pre-Investment Study Kasur District 2012, by Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[4] Pre-Investment Study Kasur District 2012, by Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[5] Pre-Investment Study Kasur District 2012, by Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 551/506 Middle Schools 113/141
Secondary Schools 89/77 Higher Secondary 07/21
Degree colleges 10/11 Other Higher Secondary[1] -/02
Other Degree Colleges[2] 08/07 Technical Training Institutes[3] 03/02
Vocational Institutes[4] -/03 Commercial Training Institutes[5] 03/-
Universities[6] 01 Govt. Mosque Schools 03/01
Medical Schools Engineering Schools

Table 1.12 Kasur Educational Institutions

A large number of private schools and colleges also provide education in the district.

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 07/351 Dispensaries 24/-
Rural Health Centers 12/242 Basic Health Units 82/164
T B Clinics 01/- Mother Child Health Centers 08/-
Private Hospitals Sub-Health Centers
Private Health Care Providers[7] 17

Table 1.13 Kasur Health Care Institutions

Figure 1.27 Bhatti International Teaching Hospital, Kasur City

Policing

The Deputy Inspector General Police looks after Sheikhupura Region which comprises of Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahib, and Kasur districts. Kasur district is further subdivided into 4 subdivisions and 20 police stations.[8] The police force in each region is headed by the District Police Officer who is assisted by a varying number of Superintendents and Deputy Superintendents of Police.

[1] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[2] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[3] Pre-Investment Study 2012, Kasur District, Directorate of Industries, Punjab; Latest available.

[4] Pre-Investment Study 2012, Kasur District, Directorate of Industries, Punjab; Latest available.

[5] Pre-Investment Study 2012, Kasur District, Directorate of Industries, Punjab; Latest available.

[6] Campus of University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences

[7] Three Year Rolling Plan 2010-13, District Kasur. GoPunjab; Latest available.

[8] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

The district is relatively less industrialized, and thus, the air quality is good, but most of the tanneries dispose of their waste into the River Chenab and other rivers and streams of the district. Hence, the water quality has been deteriorating over time.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Trees like the kikar (Acacia arbica), shisham or tahli (Dalbergia sissoo), ber (Zizyphus jujuba), toot (Morus marlaccae), sharin (Albizzia lebbek), dharek (Malia azerdarach), phulahi (Acacia modesta), neem (Melia indica), and peepul (Ficus indica) are planted for shade. The growth in Rakhs (forests) is composed mainly of three kinds of trees: jhand (Prosopis spicigera), karril (Capparis aphylla), and vann or jal (Salvadora obeoides). Occasionally, peelu (Acacia loucophhloea) and farash (Tamarix articulate) are also found. Pilchi (Tamarix gallio) is found on moist sandy soil along the rivers, and is used for wicker-work, and basket making among other activities.

The aquatic flora of Ghamaghar Lake and Rasul Barrage Game Reserve consists of Carex fedia, Juncus sp, Typha angustata, Vallisneria spiralis, and Zannichellia palustris as well as Hydrilla verticillata, Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaea lotus, Phragmites karka, Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, Vallisneria spiralis, and Zannichellia palustris.

The natural vegetation of the surrounding plains is Tropical Thorn Forest, dominated by species such as kikar or babul (Acacia nilotica), phulai (Prosopis cineraria), mesquite (P. juliflora; introduced), vann or jal (Salvadora oleoides), Salsola foetida, Suaeda fruticosa, shisham (Dalbergia sissoo; introduced), Cynodon dactylon (type of weed), Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Triticum sp (cultivated).

The hills of the Salt Range to the northwest support a Subtropical Semi-Evergreen Forest dominated by wild olive (Olea ferruginea), kikar/babul (Acacia modesta) and sanatha (Dodonea viscose).

The natural vegetation of the plains to the southeast is Tropical Thorn Forest with species such as kikar/babul (Acacia nilotica), karir (Capparis deciduas), jand (Prosopis cineraria), ghaz (Tamarix aphylla), ber (Zizyphus mauritiana), ber (Z. nummularia), milkweed (Calotropis procera), Eleusine compressa, Erianthus sp, Panicum antidotale, and Saccharum spp. (types of grasses). Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) and kikar/babul (Acacia nilotica) have been extensively planted along roads and around agricultural land.

Fauna

Wolf, pigs, peafowls, and jackal are the main wild animals in the district. Wolves are more common in the lowland wastes of Chunian tehsil; jackals are common in all areas of the district. Bengal fox and the small Indian Mongoose are also found in Kasur district.

The Changa Manga Wildlife Park houses important endangered fauna, providing them sanctuary. The Rasul Barrage Game Reserve and Ghamaghar Lake are both bird watchers’ paradises and are home to a large variety of wintering water fowl. The birds in these reservoirs include grey and black partridges, little grebe, cormorants, egrets, Eurasian teal, pintail, common pochard, greyleg goose, gadwall, purple swamp hen, and the darter.

Mammals common in the Ghamaghar Lake and Rasul Barrage Game Reserve include pigs, golden jackal, and jungle cat. Fish species include knife fish, rohu, gonnia, and mori. Other aquatic fauna include medical leeches, shrimps, frogs, turtles, and Indian flat shell turtles.

Protected Areas and Endangered Wildlife

Following are the main Wildlife Protected Areas in the district:

  • The Changa Manga Irrigated Forest Reserve provides sanctuary to Nilgai, pig, peafowl, hare, hog deer, jungle cat, wild boar, golden jackal, axis deer (axis axis), and There is a Vulture Center in the forest reserve where Asiatic Vultures are being restocked in an effort to bolster the vulture population, especially the Gyps Bengalensis vulture
  • Rakh Deosial and Rakh Bhunike Irrigated Forests
  • Ghamaghar Lake, a protected lake, is a brackish lake of international importance. It is a wetland and provides sanctuary to a large number of migratory birds that frequent the lake during the winters
  • Rasool Barrage is also an important wetland providing sanctuary to game birds

Figure 1.13 Nilgai in Changa Manga Forest, Kasur

Figure 1.14 Gyps Vulture, Changa Manga, Kasur