Punjab-Jhang

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Introduction

Jhang, also known as the land of two rivers, is one of the oldest districts of the subcontinent. It is recorded as having been established around 2000 BC. Jhang district is located between 30° 37′ to 31° 47′ north latitudes and 71° 45΄ to 72° 42′ east longitudes. The district is bordered by the districts Toba Tek Singh and Faisalabad in the east, district Hafizabad in the northeast, district Khanewal in the south, district Sargodha in the north, and districts Khushab, Bhakkar, and Layyah in the west.

District at a Glance

Name of District Jhang District
District Headquarter Jhang City
Population[1] 2,744,085 persons
Area[2] 6,166 km2 (excluding Chiniot Tehsil)
Population Density[3] 431.9 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 2.04 %
Male Population[5] 50.9%
Female Population 49.1%
Urban Population[6] 21.8%
Tehsils 04 Tehsils:

1.    Jhang Tehsil

2.    Shorkot Tehsil

3.    Athara Hazari Tehsil

4.    Ahmadpur Sial[7]

Main Towns Jhang city, Shorkot, Ahmadpur Sial, Garh Maharaja, Mari Shah Sakhira, Bagh (Jhang), Chund Bhawana, and Jabboana
Literacy Rate[8] 56%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 70%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 42%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing etc. 44.4%
Manufacturing 3.5%
Construction 33.5%
Wholesale/Retail Trade, Hotels/Restaurant 5.5%
Transport, Storage & Communication 2.0%
Community, Social & Personal Services 8.3%
Others 2.8%
Main Crops Sugarcane, wheat, rice, barley, tobacco, cotton, maize, bajra (millet), jowar (sorghum), guar seed, sunn hemp, gram, moong, maash, masoor, other pulses, rapeseed & mustard, groundnut, sesanum, linseed, sunflower, and fodder
Major Fruits Citrus, mango, banana, guava, pomegranate, and dates
Major Vegetables Peas, onion, garlic, chilies, coriander, potato, tomatoes, turnip, cauliflower, okra, carrots, and spinach
Forests (Area)[12] 6,476 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Roads[14] 2,157.8 km
National Highways[15] – km
Motorways[16] – km
Provincial Roads[17] 1,852.9 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] 304.9 km
No of Grid Stations[19] 16 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 58 telephone exchanges ranging in capacity from 206 lines to 9,674 lines
Industrial Zones[21] There is no industrial estate in the district but there are 151 small, medium, and large enterprises working in the district
Major Industry[22] Cotton Ginning & Pressing 20 Units
Flour Mills 16 Units
Rice Mills 59 Units
Sizing of Yarn 10 Units
Cold Storage 4 Units
Dairy Products 2 Units
Sugar 5 Units
Textile Spinning & Weaving 12 Units
Vegetable Ghee/ Oil 4 Units
Woolen Textile Spinning & Weaving 9 Units
Unani Medicines 1 Unit
Textile Composite 1 Unit
Cement Products 2 Units
Doubling of Yarn 5 Units
Solvent Oil Extraction 1 Unit
Household Size[23] 6.6 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 9.6%
Houses with Electricity[25] 48.8%

Table 1.1 Jhang District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] Ahmad Pur Sial has been separated from Shorkot Tehsil

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics reports 5,000 HA under forests

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-194

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries, Punjab: Pre-Investment Study 2012, Jhang District; Latest available

[20] Directorate of Industries, Punjab: Pre-Investment Study 2012, Jhang District; Latest available

[21] Directorate of Industries, Punjab: Pre-Investment Study 2012, Jhang District; Latest available

[22] Directorate of Industries, Punjab: Pre-Investment Study 2012, Jhang District; Latest available

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistoric Places and Tourist Attractions

Brief History of the District

The Imperial Gazetteer of India traces the early history of Jhang to Alexander the Great’s conquest of the subcontinent, and shows that

Alexander the Great’s operation against Malli in 325 B.C. and Shorkot [a town in Jhang district] has been identified as one of the towns captured by him during this campaign. After his withdrawal, the country came successively under the rule of Mauriyas (c. 321-231 B.C.) and Graeco-Bactrians (c. 190 B.C.), the Indo-Parthians (c. 138 B.C.) and the Kushans or Indo-Scythians (c. A.D. 100-25). About A.D. 500 it was conquered by the Huns, whose capital Sakala can be identified with Chiniot or Shahkot, a village in the Gujranwala District or with Sialkot. Their power was short lived and at the time of Hiuen Tsiang’s visit (A.D. 630) the District was included in the kingdom of Tsehkia, the capital of which was close to Sakala. In the tenth century it was subject to the Brahmin Kings of Ohind and the Punjab and under the Mughal Kings it was under the Subah (province) of Lahore. (v. 14, p. 126)

The Gazetteer of Jhang District states that the “history of Jhang is the history of the Sial tribe and until the reign of Walidad Khan in the first half of the 18th century the annals of the district are enveloped in darkness and no facts are forthcoming” (p. 27).

The Sials are the descendants of Rai Shankar and Panhwar Rajput. On the death of Rai Shankar, his son, Sial, migrated to the Punjab. During his travels, Sial came to Pakpattan where he met Baba Farid Ganjshakar and became a Muslim with his guidance. He and his followers built a fort at Sialkot to house his contingent. Using the fort as his base, he started expanding his territories. In the year 1102, Mal Khan, the 9th in descent from Sial, founded Jhang Sial on the banks of River Chenab. He is considered to be first of the race of rulers who, under the title of Khan, exercised considerable sway over the neighbouring countries until the Sikhs absorbed all the minor principalities in 1806.[1]

During the reign of Walidad Khan (Sial tribe) in the 18th century, the areas from Pindi Bhattian in the north to Layyah in the south and Hyderabad in the west to Jaranwala in the east (also known as Chenab Country), became important, and the power of the Sials reached its zenith. After his death in 1747, his nephew, Inayatullah Khan, became the ruler of the area. He was in constant warfare with the Bhangi Misl (Sikhs) and was succeeded by his sons Sultan Mohammad Khan and Sahib Khan successively. They both faced the Sikh onslaught, whose power grew steadily in the region; both died untimely deaths and were succeeded by their relative Kabir Khan who ultimately abdicated his rule in favor of Ahmad Khan, from whom the Sikh Maharaja, Ranjit Singh, took over after a fierce battle in 1806. The Maharaja leased Jhang territory to Sardar Fateh Singh after the conquest, but in 1808 Ahmad Khan returned with a large army and deposed Fateh Singh. In 1810 Ahmad Khan was deposed by Ranjit Singh, who suspected him of favoring Multan against the Sikhs; he was taken to Lahore, where he was imprisoned. The Government of Jhang was entrusted to Lala Sujan Rai. Eventually, Ahmad Khan was released and given a jagir (land grant) in Amritsar district. He died in 1820; his son, Inayat, inherited his father’s possessions, including the jagir, but was killed during a battle between the Diwan Sawan Mal of Multan and the Sikhs in 1838. His brother, Ismail Khan, who had become the chief of his family, went to Lahore (Ranjit Singh’s capital) to try and get possession of his father’s jagir but was refused; he returned to Jhang and lived in poverty.

Jhang was made a district of the British Empire, and the first English Deputy Commissioner, Mr. Hamilton, was appointed its Governor in May 1849. It was the fourth largest districts in Punjab and had 3 tehsils: Jhang, Shorkot, and Chiniot. It remained a district even after Partition, until 2009, when Chiniot was declared a new, separate, district.

The city of Jhang was built in 1102 by Rai Sial on the advice of Hazrat Shah Jalal Bukhari or Baba Farid Ganjshakar (religious mentor of Rai Sial) and was called Riasat Jhang Sial.

The name Jhang is said to have been derived from the cluster of indigenous trees¾known as Jhangi in the local dialect¾which was first discovered by early settlers on the eastern bank of River Chenab, where they settled and built mud houses.

The district is traversed by two rivers: Chenab and Jhelum.

The presence of numerous mounds, especially in the south of the district, testifies to the former existence of a large and settled population. The remains that have received the most attention of archeologists are the ones at Shorkot, which consist of a huge mound of ruins surrounded by a wall of large-sized bricks. Most of the pre-Islamic coins that have been found at the site have been dated back to the Indo-Scythian period.

The present day Faisalabad district was separated from the Jhang district in the early part of the 20th century. Jhang district remains famous for its legendary romantic stories and the presence of some well-known Sufi Saints’ shrines in the area.

Two Nobel Prize laureates¾Dr. Abdul Salam and Dr. Hergobind Khurana¾are from Jhang.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Jhang district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 6[2]
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 9

Under the Local Government and Community Development Jhang District has 1 District Council and 5 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Jhang
  • Shorkot
  • Ahmadpur Sial
  • Athara Hazari
  • Garh Maharaja

Administrative Divisions

Jhang district covers an area of 6,166 km² and is subdivided into 4 Tehsils as follows:

Jhang Tehsil 46 Union Councils
Shorkot Tehsil 16 Union Councils
Ahmadpur Sial Tehsil 13 Union Councils (separated from Shorkot Tehsil in 2003)
Athara Hazari 09 Union Councils (separated from Jhang Tehsil in 2010)

Table 1.2 Jhang Administrative Divisions

Historic Places and Tourist Attractions

There are a number of historic places in the district which also provide recreation/ picnic areas. These include:

  • Professor Abdul Salaam’s House. He was the Nobel Peace Prize Laureate who hailed from Jhang. The building is included in the List of National Monuments
  • Shrine of Hazrat Shah Saiq Nihang
  • Shrine of Hazrat Pir Ghazi
  • Shrine of Hazrat Shah Makhdum
  • Shrine of Hazrat Shah Bahu
  • Krishna Mandir, Ahmadpur Sial
  • Trimmu Barrage/ Headworks
  • Tomb of Heer Ranjha. This is believed to be the resting place of the couple, Heer Ranjha, from the legendary love story
  • A number of parks/ gardens in various areas of the district

Figure 1.4 Tomb of Heer Ranjha

Figure 1.5 Krishna Mandir, Ahmadpur Sial

Figure 1.6 Company Bagh, Jhang

[1] Extracted from District Gazetteer Jhang 1883-84, Compiled and Published under Authority of Punjab Government

[2] The seats are allocated to both Chiniot and Jhang and are shared by the representatives from both districts

Topography

The district has 3 types of topographical features:

  • the semi-desert area of Thal, west of Jhelum River
  • a fertile Plain, east of Jhelum and Chenab River
  • low lying areas, along Jhelum River

The area alongside the banks of the rivers Ravi, Chenab and Jehlum is called Hithar (area which flood waters reach), while the upland area between the Bars and the Hithar is called Uttar.

The semi-desert area west of Jhelum River is a part of the Thal Desert. The Thal Desert begins in Mari Shah Sakhira town and extends to the banks of the Jhelum River which is far to the west in the districts of Khushab and Bhakkar, and then into Layyah and Muzaffargarh districts in the south. The Thal Desert consists of rolling sand dunes running in an almost uniform direction. These alternate with hollows of fairly good soil which becomes fertile after rains. The sand dunes are formed due the action of the wind. Sub-soil water in the desert is too deep for the successful boring of wells.

The topography of the Thal region has been changed due to canal irrigation, and most of the land is now cultivated.

The land east of the Jhelum River is a fertile Plain formed by the Jhelum and Chenab rivers. It is a part of the Sandal Bar.[1] The soil is very fertile. The land far from the rivers is not subject to the direct actions of the rivers, but gets flooded during heavy rains.

The land along River Jhelum, River Chenab, and River Ravi is the Flood Plain area and is flooded every year.

There are no hills in the district.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

The rivers Chenab and Jhelum pass through the district. The creeks of River Jhelum are narrow, and generally shallow. The Jhelum enters the district from the north and travels 67 km to the confluence of Chenab and Jhelum at Trimmu Headworks in Jhang Tehsil. From here, the joint river covers 10 km within the boundary of Jhang Tehsil and 64 km in the Shorkot Tehsil.

Kala Nullah is a natural stream in the district. There are no lakes in the district but there are 2 marsh areas between the Thal Desert and the river. Locally, these marshes are known as Chhambs; one is in a non-protected rakh (forest) in Ahmadpur Sial, and the other is in Pir Abdur Rahman town.

Forests

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Jhang district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 16,002 A Forests under Provincial Govt. 1,994 A
Reserved Forests 13,957 A Un-Classed Forests 51 A
Linear Plantation 1,601 km

Table 1.3 Jhang Forests

The main forests of the district are Irrigated Plantations and Riverine Forests. The most common trees of these forests are shisham (Dalbergio Sissoo), kikar (Acacia karoo), sumbul (Kapok ceiba), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus cinerea), and mulberry (Morus alba).

The irrigated forests of the district include the Shorkot Plantation, Chak No. 300/GB, Chak Jalaldin, and Chak No. 703/JB. Riverine Forests include Sajowhal, Chak Sarkar Manghiny, Chak Madrassa, Chak Said Behran, Chak Jalaldin, Chak Bela Shajowal, Chak Sarkar Chiniot, and Chak Sarkar Mathrama.

Soils

The soils of the district are mostly fertile alluvial loam. The silt deposits of River Jhelum are rich and fertile. The soils of the Thal Desert area are alluvial, with sandy-textured sand dunes.

Climate

Jhang is characterized by extreme climate¾the temperature is generally hot, with marked variations between the summer and winter temperatures. The summer season is from April to October, and May and June are the hottest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during these months are about 40 °C and 28 °C. Occasionally, there are dust storms during the summer. The winter season is from November to March and December and January are the coldest months, when the mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 27 °C and 6 °C.

The milder temperatures for the region occur from the middle of February to the middle of April, which is the spring season; the mild temperatures help the region bloom with new vegetation.

The Monsoon causes scanty rainfall at best. The mean average rainfall in the district is 290 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to no damage due to earthquakes.

[1] Sandal Bar is the area between River Ravi and River Chenab.

Population

The following table shows the population figures for Jhang district as per the 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area Km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Jhang District 6,166 2,744,085 50.9 49.1 21.8 2.04
Jhang Tehsil 4,153 1,465,472
Shorkot Tehsil 2,013 548,626
Ahmadpur Sial Part of Shorkot Tehsil till 2005 433,517
Athara Hazari Part of Jhang Tehsil till 2010 295,801

Table 1.4 Jhang Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.3%
Christians 0.6%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.1%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Jhang Religions

Languages[2]

Urdu 3.4%
Punjabi 95.8%
Sindhi Negligible %
Pushto 0.3%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.2%
Others 0.3%

Table 1.6 Jhang Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The economy of the district is essentially agrarian. The major employers[1] of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing etc. (44.4%)
  • Manufacturing (3.5%)
  • Construction (33.5%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail Trade, Hotels/ Restaurant (5.5%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (2.0%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (8.3%)
  • Others (2.8%)

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Agriculture

The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Agriculture is the dominant sector of the economy. Almost 44.4% of the total population is engaged in agriculture. Main crops of the district include sugarcane, wheat rice, barley, tobacco, cotton, maize, bajra (millet), jowar (sorghum), guar seed, sunn hemp, gram, moong, maash, masoor, other pulses, rapeseed & mustard, groundnut, sesanum, linseed, sunflower, and fodder.

Fruits of the district include citrus, mango, banana, guava, pomegranate, mulberry, peach, and dates.

Main vegetables are peas, onions, chilies, coriander, potato, tomatoes, turnip, cauliflower, okra, carrots, spinach, cabbage, garlic, cucumber, pumpkin, brinjal, ginger, and tinda.

Figure 1.3 Wheat Fields, Jhang District

Land Use

The following table shows the major land use statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 616,600 HA Reported Area 616,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 484,000 HA Net Sown 435,000 HA
Current Fallow 49,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 132,000 HA
Culturable Waste 71,000 HA Forest Area 5,000 HA

Table 1.7 Jhang Land Use Statistics

Livestock Breeding

The following table shows the livestock population as of the 2010 Census of Livestock (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19; this data includes data for Chiniot district):

Cattle 529,000 Heads Buffaloes 556,000 Heads Sheep 165,000 Heads
Goats 494,000 Heads Camels 3,084 Heads Horses 12,755 Heads
Mules 1,084 Heads Asses 113,474 Heads

Table 1.8 Jhang Livestock Statistics

Lohi sheep, thali sheep, beetal goat, beetal spotted goat, nachi goat, barbary goats, and thoroughbred horses are indigenous to the Jhang district.

Poultry

Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) shows that there are 405 poultry farms in the district in total. Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 states that there are 248 broiler and 21 layer poultry farms (all privately owned) in the District.

Fishing

Chenab River, River Jhelum, Jheel Malkana (Trimmu Headworks), Jheel Korawala, T.S. Link Canal, Haveli Canal, Rangpur Canal, Lower Jhelum Canal, Badowana Minor, Khairwala Drain, Raniwah Drain, New Ahmadwala Drain, Gujana Bhajwana Fish Farm, and Rangpur Jheel are sources for fishing in the district.[1] Most of the fish is consumed locally, but some of the fish is exported to other parts of Pakistan as well.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

In Pakistan, honeybee colonies were introduced in the 1980s, and since then, more than 300,000 honeybee colonies have been successfully established in Pakistan. In Jhang district, beekeeping is taken up on a commercial basis.

[1] Fish Manual, by Fisheries Department Punjab

Irrigation

The district is irrigated by canals, tube wells, and canal tube wells. Haveli Canal and Rangpur Canal off-take from Trimmu Headworks and are the main irrigation canals. Haveli Canal irrigates the eastern part of Shorkot Tehsil before entering Toba Tek Singh district. Rangpur Canal irrigates the western part of Shorkot Tehsil before entering Muzaffarabad district. Other small irrigation canals of the district include Mason Distributary, Kachian Minor, and Rajo Branch Distributary.

The following table shows the irrigation statistics as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Irrigated Area 562,000 HA Unirrigated Area 74,000 HA
Canal Irrigated 6,000 HA Dug Wells Irrigated 9,000 HA
Tube Well Irrigated Area 164,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 374,000 HA
Canal Wells 5,000 HA Others 4,000 HA

Table 1.11 Jhang Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.8 Trimmu Headworks on River Jhelum, Jhang District

Minerals and Mining

Iron ore is being mined in the district. In addition, gas is being mined in the Shorkot Tehsil of Jhang district.

Industry

At present, there is no industrial estate in the district, but there are 151[1] small, medium, and large industrial units in the district. Industry-wise number of units in the district is as follows:

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
Cement Products 02 Cold Storage 04
Cotton Ginning And Pressing 20 Doubling Of Yarn 05
Dairy Products 02 Textile Spinning 11
Flour Mills 16 Solvent Oil Extraction 01
Rice Mills 59 Sizing Of Yarn 10
Sugar 05 Textile Composite (Surgical Cotton) 01
Textile Weaving 01 Vegetable Ghee/Oil 04
Unani Medicines 01 Woolen Textile Spinning/Weaving 09

Table 1.9 Jhang Industries

Trade

Jhang is a renowned trade center and trades in natural resources as well as industrial goods.

Handicrafts

Jhang district is famous for embroidery, especially for embroidered shawls, and intricate wood carving in Arabesque or “Jali” work. Artifacts such as wooden screens, tables, chests, boxes, and a host of other articles are of international renown. The designs used include floral and fruit motifs, as well as almond and mango motifs. Other handicrafts include carpets, rugs, hosiery, and marble items.

[1] Directorate of Industries; Punjab – Pre-Investment Study, Jhang District 2012; Latest available.

 

Economic Infrastructure

Jhang is connected by road and railway to some of the main cities of the country. District Jhang is linked with Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh, Sargodha, Hafizabad, Khushab, Bhakkar, Layyah, and Khanewal districts through black topped roads and with Sargodha, Shorkot, and Khanewal through the railway network. The Multan-Sargodha Road passes through the center of the city.

Roads

The following table shows the Road Statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 2,157 km
National Highways – km
Motorways – km
Provincial Highways 1,852.9 km
Sugar Cess Roads 304.9 km

Table 1.10 Jhang Road Statistics

Some of the important road links of the district include:

  • Jhang-Sargodha Road
  • Jhang-Chiniot Road
  • Jhang-Lalian Road

All the tehsils are connected through black topped roads with Jhang city and the rest of Punjab and Pakistan.

Rail and Airways

Jhang city is connected to the main railway line connecting Karachi to Peshawar. There are a total of 9 railway stations in the district; these include Chund, Rivaz West Bank Station, and Rivaz East Bank Station (Pre-Investment Study Jhang District 2009, by Directorate of Industries Punjab).

There is no airport in the district; the nearest airport is the Faisalabad International Airport.

Figure 1.7 Railway Station, Jhang

Radio and Television

There is 1 FM Radio Station in Jhang city. There is no television station in the district, but TV can be viewed through boosters and Cable.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network[1] of telephone lines. In all, there are 58 telephone exchanges operating in the district, ranging in capacity from 206 lines to 9,674 lines. In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are nearly 29 offices[2] of Pakistan Post in the district, with 13 branches in Jhang Tehsil, 10 in Shorkot Tehsil, and 6 in Ahmadpur Sial Tehsil.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are a total of 55 branches of various banks[3] in the district, with 29 in Jhang Tehsil, 18 in Shorkot, and 8 in Ahmadpur Sial tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019, by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have their branches in the district:

  • Al Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • J S Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 111 branches of various conventional banks and 14 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

Faisalabad Electric Supply Co. (FESCO) looks after supply and distribution of electricity to the district.[4] There are 16 grid stations in the district ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 220 KV. Natural Gas is available in Jhang Saddar, Shorkot city, and Shorkot Cantt.

[1] Pre-Investment Study, Jhang District 2012, by Directorate of Industries Lahore; Latest available.

[2] Pre-Investment Study, Jhang District 2012, by Directorate of Industries Lahore; Latest available.

[3] Pre-Investment Study, Jhang District 2012, by Directorate of Industries Lahore; Latest available.

[4] Pre-Investment Study, Jhang District 2012, by Directorate of Industries Lahore; Latest available.

Education

The following table shows the details of educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boys/Girls Facility Boys/Girl
Primary Schools 476/792 Middle Schools 100/89
Secondary Schools 93/68 Higher Secondary 13/16
Degree Colleges 19/08 Other Higher Secondary[1] 07/04
Other Degree Colleges[2] 09/04 Technical Training Institutes[3] 04/01
Vocational Institutes[4] -/02 Commercial Training[5] 02/-
University[6] 02 Government Mosque Schools
Medical College Agriculture College
Engineering Colleges Law Colleges

Table 1.12 Jhang Educational Institutions

There is a Government Cadet College in Jhang district. There are a large number of private schools and colleges as well.

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. This DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health care institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility No./Beds Facility No./Beds
Government Hospitals 08/523 Dispensaries 69/-
Rural Health Centers 13/220 Basic Health Units 58/116
T.B. Clinics 01/- Sub-Health Centers 31/-
Mother Child Health Centers 09/- Private Hospitals 01/50
Private Health Care Providers[7] 88

Table 1.13 Jhang Health Institutions

Figure 1.9 District Headquarter Hospital, Jhang

Policing

Deputy Inspector General Police looks after Faisalabad region which comprises of Faisalabad, Jhang, Chiniot, and Toba Tek Singh districts. Jhang district is further subdivided into 4 subdivisions and 14 police stations.[8] The police force in each region is headed by the District Police Officer who is assisted by a varying number of Superintendents and Deputy Superintendents of Police.

[1] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[2] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[3] Pre-investment Study District Jhang 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[4] Pre-investment Study District Jhang 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[5] Pre-investment Study District Jhang 2012, Directorate of Industries Punjab; Latest available.

[6] Lahore College for Women University, and University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

[7] Three Years Rolling Plan 2010-13, Jhang District; Latest available.

[8] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

 

Environment and Biodiversity

The atmosphere of the district is mostly free of pollutants except dust. This is due to the fact that the district is not highly industrialized.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The district’s flora consists of jand (Prosopis spicigera), karir (Capparis aphylla), ber (Zizyphus jujuba), vann (Salvadora oleoides), kikar (Acacia nilotica), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), and aak (Calotropois spp), as well as mulberry (Morus alba). Various herbs can also be found, including harmal, akrey, and bathoo. Other flora includes babul (Acacia nilotica), farash (Tamarix aphylla), jand (Prosopis cineraria), jujube or ber (Zizyphus mauritiana), ber (Zizyphus nummularia), milkweed or aak (Calotropis procera), karir (Capparis deciduas), shrubby seablite (Suaeda fruticosa), bansi (Panicum antidotale), goose grass (Eleusine compressa), Cymbopogon jwarancusa grass, Saccharum munja grass, and kansi (S. spontaneum).

On the banks of rivers, in low lying areas with high water regime, different plant species like fodder cane (Sccharum spontaneum), dabhh (Desmostachya bipinnata), Typha angustata (an aquatic plant), Phragmites karka (another aquatic plant), pilchi (Tamarix dioca), camelthorn (Alhaji camelorum), tumble weed (Salsola foetida), and khar (Sueda fruticosa) are commonly found. Some of these species are of little or no forage value. However, they stabilize the stream banks and provide some fuel to inhabitants of the area. Multipurpose trees and shrubs can be easily established along the stream banks.

The Trimmu Headworks area has 2 types of plants: terrestrial plants found on marginal bunds and aquatic plants found in and around water. The main species of trees found on marginal bunds are siris (Albizia lebbeck), Egyptian mimosa (Acacia nilotica), bo tree (Ficus religiosa), and river red-gum (Eucalyptis camaldulensis), as well as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo), Indian jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana) and wild jujube (Z. nummularia). Ground flora found in the area consists mainly of lamb’s-quarters (Chenopodium album), cheeseweed mallow (Malva parviflora), camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum), toothed medick (Medicago polymorpha), sweet clover (Melilotus indica), Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), Syrian rue (Peganum harmala) and puncture vine (Tribulus terristris). The main aquatic plant species found in the area include water-thyme (Hydrilla verticillata), striate vallis (Vallisneria spiralis), sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), Egyptian lotus (Nymphea lotus), Bengal cane (Saccharum bengalense), wild cane (S. spontaneum), tamarisk (Tamarix dioica) and southern cat-tail (Typha domingensis).

Fauna

Mammals found in the district include the jackal, jungle cat, mongoose, wild hare, wild boar, and porcupine. Reptiles include viper snake, lizards like the uromastyx, and krait snakes. Birds include black and grey partridges, hoopoe, jungle babbler, bee-eater, pied king fisher, lapwing, purple sunbird, white-cheeked bulbul, ring dove, white-breasted water hen, and streaked weaver.

The reserve at Trimmu Headworks[1] supports 89 bird species, of which 37 are migratory and the rest are residents. Some of these include the little grebe, Indian pond heron, pintail, common teal, Eurasian widgeon, common pochard, white-backed vulture, coot, Indian moorhen, purple swamp hen, black-bellied tern, red turtle dove, crow pheasant, little owlet, and the common kingfisher.

Protected Areas and Endangered Wildlife

There are a total of 1,424 HA of Reserved Forests protected by the Provincial Government and 284 HA of Protected Forests protected under district government laws. Protected wildlife areas also include:

  • Shorkot Irrigated Plantation (a reserved forest)
  • Daulana Game Reserve
  • Trimmu Barrage Game Reserve. The lake area of this barrage provides a natural breeding ground and resting area for a number of native and migratory birds.

These provide sanctuary to the jungle cat, jackal, mongoose, wild hare, wild boar, porcupines, black and grey francolins, and black partridges. Game birds and other avifauna present in these areas are also provided protection and sanctuary.

[1] Diversity of Avifauna of Trimmu Barrage, District Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan by Shahid Mahboob and Zaib-un-Nisa