Punjab-Sialkot

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Introduction

Sialkot district is located between 31° 55Ꞌ to 32° 51Ꞌ north latitudes, and 74° 13Ꞌ to 74° 57Ꞌ east longitudes. The district is bounded on the northwest by Gujrat district, on the north and northeast by occupied Jammu and Kashmir State, on the east and southeast by Narowal district, and on the west and southwest by Gujranwala district, while on the south it just touches the boundaries of Sheikhupura district.

District at a Glance

Name of District Sialkot District
District Headquarter Sialkot City
Population[1] 3,893,672 persons
Area[2] 3,016 km2
Population Density[3] 1,259 persons per km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.9%
Male Population[5] 49.4%
Female Population[6] 50.6%
Urban Population[7] 29.4%
Tehsils 04 Tehsils:

1.    Daska

2.    Pasrur

3.    Sialkot

4.    Sambrial[8]

Main Towns Chawinda, Begowala, Kotli Loharan, Miranwali, Siranwali, Pasrur, Sialkot, Daska, Sambrial, Dalowali Village, and Perochak
Literacy Rate[9] 77%
Male Literacy Rate[10] 81%
Female Literacy Rate[11] 75%
Major Economic Activity[12] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing etc. 20.3%
Mining & Quarrying 2.2%
Manufacture 17.6%
Construction 24.9%
Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant 9.0%
Transport, Storage & Communication 3.7%
Community, Social & Personal Service 18.6%
Others 3.7%
Main Crops Wheat, rice, sunflower, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, maash, moong, masoor, gram, maize, rapeseed & mustard, sesanum, linseed, and sunn hemp
Major Fruits Guavas, citrus, mango, banana, jaamun, pears, peaches, leechee, pomegranate
Major Vegetables Potato, turnip, garlic, tomato, cauliflower, peas, onions, carrots, okra, chilies, coriander, and turmeric
Forests (area)[13] 6,000 HA[14]
Total Black Topped Roads[15] 1,918.1 Km
National Highways[16] – km
Motorways[17] – km
Provincial Highways[18] 1,887.5 km
Sugar Cess Roads[19] 30.5 km
No. of Grid Stations[20] 13 grid stations ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[21] 45 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 200 lines to 17,000 lines
Industrial Zones[22] There are 4 industrial estates in the district. The district also has a dry port. A total of 2,529 small, medium, and large enterprises are operating in the district.
Major Industry[23] Sports Goods 459 Units
Surgical Instruments 1,071 Units
Tanneries 135 Units
Rice Mills 165 Units
Leather Garments 381 Units
Readymade Garments 67 Units
Leather Products 45 Units
Cold Storage 33 Units
Agricultural Implements 36 Units
Auto Parts 22 Units
Cutlery 24 Units
Flour Mills 19 Units
Utensils (all sorts) 26 Units
Household Size[24] 7.4 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[25] 26.3%
Houses with Electricity[26] 94.6%

Table 1.1 Sialkot District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Sambrial tehsil was created in 2004 from Daska tehsil

[9] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); Latest available.

[10] PSLM

[11] PSLM

[12] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public.

[13] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[14]Land Utilization Statistics report 6,000 HA under forests.

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[20] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

[23] Directorate of Industries, Lahore. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; for a detailed listing, please refer to section on Industry

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made yet.

[26] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHistorical/ Heritage Sites, Tourist Attractions, Picnic Spots

Brief History of the District

Antiquity

Sialkot was founded by Raja Sul or Sala of the Pandu Dynasty[1] which ruled the area about 5,000 years ago. The town was named Sulkot after him.

In the late Vedic Period (1500-500 BC), Sakala, which has been identified with Sialkot City by historians, was the capital city of the Madra tribe, who have been known since the late Vedic Period (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad; 1500-500 BC). In the ancient texts, Sakaladvipa or the Island of Sakala was the name of the Doab (land lying between two rivers), between the Chandrabhaga (River Chenab) and Iravati (River Ravi); this “island” has been identified with what is now known as the Sialkot region.[2]

In those early days, Sakala was studded with thick forests and inhabited by a pastoral tribe called Yahars or Yirs. Sakala was also the capital, or one of the capitals, of the Greek Kings of the house of Euthydemus, and the residence of Menander (Milinda), the Bactrian-Greek king who ruled in Sialkot during the 2nd century BC.

Alexander the Great invaded the area in 327 BC; at that time, the city was known as Sagala/ Sakala. He made this the eastern-most part of his Empire. The Greek historians state that the city was one of the most productive and the wealthiest regions of the Achaemenid Empire and the Punjab region.

After the invasion by Alexander the Great, people from remote parts of India started settling in the region; among them were the descendants of Shun, Hun, and Dall, all three of whom were the sons of Raja Rachor Rao of Rajputana. They introduced agriculture and irrigation in the area.[3]

The Imperial Gazetteer of India summarizes the history of Sialkot town as follows:

Popular legends attribute its foundation to Raja Sala, the uncle of the Pandavas, and say it was re-founded in the time of Vikramaditya by Raja Salivahan, who built the fort and city. Salivahan had two sons: one, Puran by name, was killed by the instrumentality of a wicked step-mother and thrown into a well, still the resort of pilgrims near Sialkot; the other son, Rasalu, the great mythical hero of Punjab folk tales, is said to have reigned at Sialkot. Towards the end of his reign Rasalu became involved in wars with Raja Hudi, popularly stated to have been a Gakhar chief. (v. 22, p. 335)

He was worsted in this war and had to give his daughter in marriage to Raja Hudi.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India continues: “After the death of Raja Rasalu the country is said to have fallen under the curse of Puran (brother of Rasalu, who had become a fakir) for 300 years, lying totally devastated from famine and incessant plunder” (v. 22, p 335).

After the invasions of the Huns in the last quarter of the 5th century AD, the region became the capital of Toramana and his son Mihirakula’s kingdoms.

In 790 AD the fort and city were demolished by an army under Raja Naraut, supported by the Ghandaurs of the Yousafzai country. After this period there is no mention of Sialkot for a long period except for the fact that it remained part of the territories of Raja Braham Deo of Jammu.

Muslim Dominions and British Rule

Muslims invaded India and conquered most of the Indus Region in 712 AD. Sultan Shahab-ud-din Muhammad of Ghor (also known as Shahab-ud-din Ghori) established the Ghori Dynasty in 1173 AD, and in 1811 he attacked Lahore but was defeated. At that time, he retreated to Sialkot, where he had a fort built. It is from here that he again proceeded towards Lahore and finally conquered it in 1186. In 1192, he laid the first foundations of Muslim Rule in India. His successors established the Delhi Sultanate and Sialkot became part of the Muslim Empire.

During the rule of the Mughal Emperor, Akbar the Great, the present district of Sialkot formed a part of the Rechna-Bar Sarkar of the Lahore province. Under the reign of the Mughal Emperor, Shahjahan, Ali Mardan Khan held the charge of Sialkot.

During the declining years of the Mughal dynasty (after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707), the suburbs and the outlying districts and areas of Sialkot were left to themselves, and thus anarchy prevailed. Sialkot itself was appropriated by a powerful family of Pashtuns and the sub-mountainous tracts were in the hands of Raja Ranjit Deo of Jammu.

In 1748, the four districts of Gujrat, Sialkot, Pasrur, and Daska were given to the Afghan ruler, Ahmed Shah Durrani by Mir Mannu (the Governor of Lahore and Multan) as ransom, and the area was amalgamated into the Afghan Empire. In 1751, Ahmed Shah Durrani left his son, Taimur, to rule Lahore and these districts. During that time, Raja Ranjit Deo of Jammu expanded his domination over the peripheral areas, but the city of Sialkot was not included in it. When the Durrani power declined, the Sikhs formed themselves into 12 Misls.[4] Sialkot was wrested from the Pathans by two Sikh leaders, Jhanda Singh and Ganda Singh, confederates of the famous family of Gulab Singh Mariwala, who represented the Bhangi Misl, and thus, the area came under Bhangi rule.

Between 1797 and 1810 AD, Ranjit Singh succeeded in acquiring the whole district, both through conquest and confiscation. He also established his sovereignty over a large area which included Sialkot district. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, British officers were appointed in Sialkot and the district was annexed by the British after the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849.

During the War of Independence of 1857 (called the Mutiny by British historians) this region was the scene of heavy fighting, and the Sialkot Fort was used by the Europeans for protection from the native troops.

Murrey College, Sialkot, was established in 1889 AD. The Sialkot-Narowal Railway Line was opened in 1915 AD.

Pakistan Movement

The city played an important role during the Pakistan Movement. In May 1944, for example, the historic Sialkot Convention was held. This convention catapulted the All India Muslim League into prominence in the British-Indian Punjab. Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Liaquat Ali Khan, Choudhary Naseer Ahmad Malhi, (Inayat-Ullah Choudhry), Khawaja Nazim-ud-Din, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar, Mumtaz Ahmad Khan Daultana, Nawab Iftikhar Hussain Khan of Mamdot, and Maulvi Tamizuddin (all of whom were prominent politicians, instrumental in galvanizing the Muslim population of India during the Independence struggle) all attended this convention.

Post-Independence

After the independence of Pakistan from the British in 1947, thousands of Muslims from Pathankot and Gurdaspur as well as from other parts of East Punjab settled in Sialkot. Earlier, the Muslims of Gurdaspur had believed that the entire district was to be allotted to Pakistan. However at the time of partition, the British, in a highly controversial decision, allocated Gurdaspur to India.

During the second war with India in 1965, the Lahore-Sialkot region was attacked by the Indian Army which, despite overwhelming numerical supremacy, could only capture some outlying areas in the sector. The armored battles in the Sialkot sector, especially the Battle at Chawainda, were the most intense since the Second World War.[5] In 1966, the Pakistan Government awarded the hilal-e-Istaqlal to the citizens of Sialkot, Lahore, and Sargodha for their courage and bravery during the 1965 war between India and Pakistan. Again, during the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971, the region witnessed bitter battles, the most important being the Battle of Basantar in the Sialkot-Shakargarh area.

During British rule, the district was divided into 5 tehsils with headquarters at Sialkot. In 1973, Narowal and Shakargarh tehsils were established, and Narowal was given the status of a district while Shakargarh tehsil was made its part. Sialkot then comprised of 3 tehsils. In 2004, Sambrial tehsil was created from Daska tehsil.

Sialkot has gradually become one of the major industrial centers of Pakistan, and is well-known for its manufacture and export of surgical instruments, musical instruments, sports goods, leather goods, textile products, and other light manufactures.

Sialkot is also known as the city of writers and poets, since it is the birthplace of the well-known Muslim philosopher, scholar and poet, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal, as well as the famous Urdu poet Faiz Ahmad Faiz. Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, a famous poet and writer, was also born in Sialkot.

Figure 1.3 Indian Tanks captured at Chawainda, 1965

Figure 1.4 Pakistan Army at Khem Karan after its capture in 1965

Figure 1.5 Battle of Chawinda

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Sialkot district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 5
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 11

Under the Local Government and Community Development Sialkot district has 1 District Council, and 1 Municipal Corporation as follows:

  • Municipal Corporation Sialkot

It also has 3 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Daska
  • Sambrial
  • Pasrur

Administrative Divisions

Currently, Sialkot district is divided into 4 tehsils as follows:

Daska Tehsil 29 Union Councils
Pasrur Tehsil 28 Union Councils
Sialkot Tehsil 50 Union Councils
Sambrial Tehsil 17 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Sialkot Administrative Divisions

Historical/ Heritage Sites, Tourist Attractions, Picnic Spots

Historical monuments of the district include:

  • Tibba Jolian Sialkot. Protected under Government of Pakistan Laws
  • Shrine of Hazrat Imam-Ali-ul Haq (Protected): This shrine is said to have been constructed by Shah Daula. A large fair is held every year during the month of Muharram
  • Shrine of Hazrat Syed Murad Ali Shah (Protected)
  • Shrine of Hazrat Pir Mallah Rahim Pur Kuchian (Protected)
  • Shrine of Hazrat Abdus Salaam Chishti who was known as Bara Bhai (Protected)
  • Shrine of Hazrat Quttab Shah Wali (Protected)
  • Shrine of Hazrat Mir Muhammad Zarif (Protected)

Other tourist attractions include:

  • Sialkot Fort: Reputed to have been built by Raja Salivahan and reconstructed in 1866. It housed and protected the British during the 1857 War of Independence/ Mutiny
  • Raja Tej Singh Temple: This temple has a rest house which was endowed by Raja Tej Singh
  • Temple of Guru Baba Nanak: This temple is the scene of an annual fair; the temple is held in great veneration by Sikhs
  • Darbar Baoli Sahib: This is a covered well erected in memory of Nanak Sahib and is a place of sanctity for the Sikhs
  • Shrine of Hazrat Maulvi Abdul Hakim: This shrine is situated in Mianapura Mohalla. The Maulvi sahib was a great scholar during the reign of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb
  • Iqbal Manzil: This is where Sir Allama Dr. Muhammad Iqbal was born in November 1877. The building is being maintained as a museum
  • Clock Tower in Saddar Bazar of Sialkot Cantonment: It is believed to have been constructed by Lala Ramji Das in 1921-22
  • Chawinda: this is the site of the largest tank battle after World War II. The battle occurred during the 1965 war with India. A memorial to the battle called Yadgar-e-Shaheedan has been constructed here
  • Marala Barrage, that has been built on River Chenab
  • There are a number of parks like Jinnah Park, Gulzar-e-Fatemah Park, Allama Abdul Hakeem Park, Haider Park, and Shahab-ud Din Jubilee Park.

Figure 1.7 Bajwat Wildlife Sanctuary

Figure 1.8 Sialkot Fort

Figure 1.9 Clock Tower Sialkot

Figure 1.10 Iqbal Manzil, Residence of Allama Iqbal, Sialkot

[1] Pandu Dynasty is one of the epic stories in the Mahabharta; Pandu was the father of five sons who were collectively called the Pandavas; Raja Sala was the uncle of the Pandavas

[2] Punjab District Gazetteers 1920, Sialkot District, Government of Punjab

[3] 1961 District Census Report Sialkot

[4] Misls were small sovereign states held by Sikh warriors. These states were named after the warrior who held it.

[5] Mohan, PVS Jagan, and Samir Chopra. The India Pakistan Air War of 1965. India: Manohar Publishers, 2005

Topography

The district is situated in the northern part of Punjab, Pakistan and is an oblong tract of country occupying the sub-montane portion of the Rechna Doab,[1] fringed on either side by a line of fresh alluvial soil, above which rise the high banks that form the limits of the river beds. The River Chenab flows in the northwest of Sialkot and the Degh Nullah in the southwest. The district is generally a plain formed of alluvial deposits. The land slopes down from the uplands at the base of the Himalayas in the north to a level country towards the south. The foothills of the Himalayas are at a 32 km distance from the city in the northeast which is, in general, a level plain. The general altitude is about 250 m above mean sea level.

The foothills of the Kashmir Hills (also called Jammu Hills) are also located near the district, next to the River Chenab.

The northwestern area of the district is occupied by the Bajwat, which is an island delta of the River Chenab traversed by a network of streams which flow from one branch of the river in the north into another branch in the south. The northern branch is joined by the Maikhani Tawi in the northwest of Bajwat, and the southern branch by Jammu Tawi at its southeastern corner.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

River Chenab flows in the northwest of Sialkot. Major tributaries of River Chenab in the district are the Degh and Aik Nullahs. The River Chenab breaks out from the hills and flows on into two main branches, one going south till it is joined by Jammu Tawi, the other flowing westwards till it joins the former branch at Sikka.

The Palkhu Nullah originates in the Bajwat hills from River Tawi. The other important nullahs of the district are Sabzkote, Gadger, Lunda, Bhed Nullah, and Dhan Nullah. Other smaller and less important streams/ hill torrents in the district include Bhas, Jaurian Nullah, Nalwah Nullah, Sukh Tau, and Manawar Tawi.

There are numerous marshes or water bodies, locally known as Chapper, in the district. These serve as reservoirs for irrigation purposes.

Forests

Sialkot district belongs to the Thorn Forest Ecological Zone of Pakistan. The trees commonly found in the district are mango (Mangifera indica), lasura (Cordial myxa), ber (Zizyphus jujube), shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), shirin or sirin (Albezzia lebbek), babul or kikar (Acacia Arabica), phulai (Acacia modesta), bohar (Ficus indica), bukain or dhrek (Melia azedarach), toot or mulberry (Morus maraceac), jaamun (Engenia jambolana), and pipal (Ficus religiosa).

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Sialkot district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 15,604 A Under Provincial Govt. – A
District Govt. – A Reserved Forests 111 A
Unclassed Forest 1,525 A Resumed Land 13,771 A
Linear Plantation 1,117 km Misc. Forests 197 A

Table 1.3 Sialkot Forest Statistics

Bela Talianwala (Riverine Forest), Kotli Arian, Kalan Kotli Arian, Khurddadu Chak, and Rakh Chanaki are some of the forests of the district.

Soils

The soil of the district is heavy and fertile. Sandy soil is found close to the rivers. In the path of the Degh Nullah, Rohi soil prevails. Rohi soils are stiff soils, mostly found in the Cholistan Desert; this type of soil is liable to crack when dry. Rohi soil is mainly found in the south of the Daska and Pasrur tehsils in the tract now irrigated by the Upper Chenab Canal.

Climate

Sialkot district has a humid, sub-tropical climate. Sialkot is chilly during the winters, and hot and humid during the summers. The summer season starts in April and continues till October. June is the hottest month. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during the month of June are 40 °C and 25 °C. January is the coldest month. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures of Sialkot during this month are 19 °C and 5 °C respectively. The temperature during winter may sometimes drop to 0 °C. The land is, generally, plain and fertile. Most of the rain falls during the Monsoon season in summer which often results in flooding when combined with melt water from Himalayan glaciers entering local rivers. The mean average annual rainfall in the district is 960 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2B of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to moderate damage due to earthquakes.

[1] The area of land between River Ravi and River Chenab

Population

The following table shows the population of the district and its tehsils as per 2017 Census:

District/Tehsil Area

km2

Population Male% Female% Urban

%

Growth Rate %
Sialkot District 3,016 3,893,672 49.4 50.6 29.4 1.9
Daska Tehsil 1,026[1] 846,933
Pasrur Tehsil 978 840,881
Sialkot tehsil 1,012 1,794,658
Sambrial Tehsil 411,200

Table 1.4 Sialkot Population Statistics

Religions[2]

Muslims 95.2%
Christians 3.9%
Hindus 0.1%
Ahmadis 0.6%
Schedule Castes Negligible %
Others Negligible %

Table 1.5 Sialkot Religions

Languages[3]

Urdu 1.5%
Punjabi 97.1%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 0.3%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 0.1%
Others 0.7%

Table 1.6 Sialkot Languages

[1] Area includes the area of Sambrial Tehsil also

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[3] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

Sialkot is one of the most important business and industrial hubs of Pakistan. Its well-known industries include sporting goods, leather garments, and accessories, knit wear, surgical implements, beauty care, musical instruments, and several other manufactured goods. Sialkot has the highest per capita exports[1] and has its own dry port.

The major industrial occupations[2] of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding, Fishing etc. (20.3%)
  • Mining & Quarrying (2.2%)
  • Manufacture (17.6%)
  • Construction (24.9%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail, Hotel/ Restaurant (9.0%)
  • Transport, Storage & Communication (3.7%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Service (18.6%)
  • Others (3.7%)

Agriculture

Sialkot belongs to the Barani/ Rain-Fed Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. The agriculture here mostly depends upon rains. Important crops of the district are wheat, rice, sunflower, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, maash, moong, masoor, gram, maize, rapeseed & mustard, sesanum, linseed, sunn hemp, sorghum, groundnut, and millet.

Fruits grown in the area include guavas, citrus, mango, banana, jaamun, pears, peaches, leechee, and pomegranates.

Vegetable produce of the area include potato, turnip, garlic, tomato, cauliflower, peas, onions, carrots, okra, chilies, coriander, and turmeric.

Land Use

The following table shows the main land use statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area 301,600 HA Reported Area 304,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 251,000 HA Net Sown 251,000 HA
Current Fallow – HA Total Uncultivated Area 53,000 HA
Culturable Waste 23,000 HA Forest Area 6,000 HA

Table 1.7 Sialkot Land Use Statistics

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is a very important allied activity of the agriculture sector of Pakistan. Nearly all farmers keep a few heads of cattle and poultry to help increase the family’s income.

The following table shows the livestock population as per the 2010 Livestock Census (quoted in Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19):

Cattle 140,000 Heads Buffaloes 474,000 Heads Sheep 25,000 Heads
Goats 87,000 Heads Camels – Heads Horses 4,871 Heads
Mules 1,638 Heads Asses 37,843 Heads

Table 1.8 Sialkot Livestock Statistics

Beetal goat and beetal-spotted goat are the indigenous breeds of livestock in the district.

Poultry

According to Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock), there are 892 poultry farms in total in the district. Number of privately owned poultry farms in the District as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 are 592 broiler and 262 layer farms.

Fishing

Fishing activity is carried out in water ponds and canals of the district, but most of this fish is consumed locally.[3] Fishing is carried out in Downstream Head Marala, Upper Chenab Canal, Upstream Head Bombiwala, Marala-Ravi Link Canal, Rayyah Branch Canal, and River Ravi.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

Commercial bee keeping is carried out in various forests and farms in the district.

Irrigation

The Marala Headworks on River Chenab control the irrigation canal waters for the district. The Upper Chenab Canal and its branches/ water courses off-taking from Marala Headworks irrigate the district.

The following table shows the irrigation statistics as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 396,000 HA Irrigated Area 392,000 HA
Un-Irrigated Area 4,000 HA Canal Irrigated 2,000 HA
Dug Wells 3,000 HA Tube Well Irrigated 372,000 HA
Canal Well Irrigated 1,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 14,000 HA
Others – HA

Table 1.11 Sialkot Irrigation Statistics

Figure 1.11 Marala-Ravi Link Canal, Pasrur Tehsil

Figure 1.12 Hydro-Power Project, Marala Headworks

Figure 1.13 Marala Headworks

Minerals and Mining

There is no mining activity in the district. Oil and gas are not being explored at present.

Industry

At present there are 4 Industrial Estates[4] and a Tannery Zone established by Punjab Small Industries Corporation (PSIC) in the district. There are a total of 2,529 different manufacturing industries scattered in various areas of the district as follows:

Type of Industry Number Type of Industry Number
Agricultural Implements 36 Animal Feed 01
Arms & Ammunition 01 Auto Parts 22
Belts 01 Bicycle Parts 04
Chemicals 01 Cold Storage 33
Cutlery 24 Cycle Tire Tubes 03
Vegetable Ghee/Oil 01 Drugs & Pharmaceuticals 01
Flour Mills 19 Iron & Steel Re-Rolling 05
Leather Footwear 03 Leather Garments 381
Leather Products 45 Locks & Padlocks 06
Musical Instruments 09 Packages 10
Readymade Garments 67 Rice Mills 165
Sports Good 459 Sugar 01
Surgical Instruments 1,071 Tannery 134
Utensils (All Sorts) 26

Table 1.9 Sialkot Industries

Trade

The district trades in sports goods, musical instruments, leather goods, surgical and beauty instruments, tents, and other industrial products identified above.

Handicrafts

Leather goods, sports goods, surgical instruments, and musical instruments are all small industries, and the production is mostly handcrafted. Handwoven cotton, pashmina shawls, iron grills, and other work of wrought iron, vessels of brass, and tents are the main handicrafts of the district.

Figure 1.6 Leather Footballs (Soccer Balls) made in Sialkot

 

Economic Infrastructure

Sialkot district is linked with Narowal, Gujrat, and Gujranwala districts through black topped roads. All the tehsil headquarters are also linked with Sialkot City through black topped roads. The district is linked with Gujranwala, and Narowal districts through Pakistan’s Railway Network.

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 1,918.1 km
National Highways – km
Motorways – km
Provincial Highways 1,887.5 km
Sugar Cess Roads 30.5 km

Table 1.10 Sialkot Road Statistics

Following are some of the important road links of the district:

  • Sialkot-Lahore via Daska-Gujranwala Road
  • Sialkot-Sambrial-Islamabad Road
  • Sialkot-Wazirabad-Islamabad Road
  • Kashmir Road
  • Hajipura Road
  • Airport Road
  • Kotli-Marala Road

Rail and Airways

The district is linked with Gujranwala and Narowal districts through Pakistan Railways. There is a railway station at Sialkot, Sodhar, and Pasrur. In all, there are 5 railway stations in the district.[1]

There is an international airport at Sialkot named Sialkot International Airport and a PAF airbase in the district named Sialkot Cantonment Airport.

Radio and Television

At present, there are 3 privately-owned FM and AM radio stations in the district. Pakistan’s popular ATV Channel is based in Sialkot; there is also a local TV station, called Sialkot TV, in the district. All other TV channels can be viewed through cable network.

Telecommunications

There are 45 telephone exchanges[2] operating in the district each ranging in capacity from 200 lines to 17,000 lines. Nearly all of the major cellular companies also operate in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

Pakistan Post has its headquarters in Sialkot City. There are 81 post offices in the district, with 43 in Sialkot tehsil, 12 in Sambrial tehsil, 13 in Pasrur tehsil, and 13 in Daska tehsil.[3] Nearly all the courier services of Pakistan provide their services in the district.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

In all, a total of 233 branches[4] of various banks are working in the district, with 168 in Sialkot tehsil, 13 in Sambrial tehsil, 24 in Pasrur tehsil, and 28 in Daska tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan, the following banks have their branches in the district:

  • Al Baraka Bank Ltd.
  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Askari Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Bank Al Habib Ltd.
  • Bank Islami Pakistan Ltd.
  • Burj Bank Ltd.
  • Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan Ltd.
  • Faysal Bank Ltd.
  • First Women Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Habib Metropolitan Bank Ltd.
  • HSBC Middle East Bank Ltd.
  • JS Bank Ltd.
  • KASB Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • National Investment Bank Ltd.
  • Silk Bank Ltd.
  • SME Bank Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Standard Chartered Bank Ltd.
  • Summit Bank Ltd.
  • The Bank of Khyber
  • The Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.

In all there are 306 branches of various conventional banks and 49 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

The Gujranwala Electric Power Company (GEPCO) looks after the supply of electricity in the district. There are 13 grid stations[5] ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV in the district. Natural gas is not available in the district.

Education

The following table shows the number of educational institutes in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility Boy/Girl Facility boys/girl
Primary Schools 485/966 Middle Schools 104/183
Secondary Schools 100/138 Higher Secondary 10/28
Degree Colleges 12/32 Other Higher Secondary[6] 04/04
Other Degree Colleges[7] 06/26 Technical Training Institutes[8] 04/01
Vocational Institutes[9] -/03 Commercial Training[10] 04/01
University[11] 03 Government Mosque Schools -/-
Medical College[12] 02 Agriculture College
Engineering Colleges Law Colleges 01

Table 1.12 Sialkot Educational Institutions: Government

In addition, there is 1 cadet college in the district called Cadet College Sialkot.

In addition there are a large number of privately owned schools and colleges that impart education at all levels.

Figure 1.14 Medical College, Pasrur

Figure 1.15 A Private School in Sialkot City

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. This DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Facility No./Beds Facility No./Beds
Government Hospitals 10/1,388 Dispensaries 39/10
Rural Health Centers 07/80 Basic Health Units 91/176
T.B. Clinics 02/10 Sub-Health Centers 14/-
Mother Child Health Centers 15/- Private Hospitals 4/225
Private Healthcare Providers[13] 136

Table 1.14 Sialkot Health Institutes

Figure 1.16 Islam Central Hospital (Private), Sialkot

Policing

The Regional Police officer (RPO) Gujranwala Region (composed of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Narowal, Mandi Bahauddin and Hafizabad districts) reports to the Inspector General Police (IGP) and is responsible for policing in Sialkot district. The District Police Officer (DPO) Sialkot District is in charge of the district, and manages 05 Subdivisions, each headed by a Deputy Superintendent Police (DSP). These DSPs control a total of 27 police stations[14] in Sialkot district.

[1] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

[6] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[7] Includes Private, Federal and Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[8] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

[9] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

[10] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

[11] Campus of University of Management and Sciences, Fatimah Jinnah University Sialkot Campus; Sub-Campus of Virtual University, Islamabad

[12] Islam Medical College and Khwaja Mohd Safdar Medical College

[13] Three Years Rolling Plan 2010-13 District Sialkot by GoPunjab; Latest available.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[1] “Sialkot Entrepreneurial Spirit” by Dr. Jawaid A. Ghani (Centre for Management & Economic Research –LUMS, working paper #96-10 Sept. 1996.

[2] 1998 Census; ; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[3] Fisheries Department, Punjab. Manual Fisheries

[4]Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Sialkot District 2012; Latest available.

Environment and Biodiversity

Even though most of Sialkot district is rural, there are lots of industries in the district which pollute both the air and water in the district. This is specifically true for the tanneries of the district. At present, the air quality of the district meets the international standards of clean air, but it is deteriorating rapidly due to industrialization.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

The common flora of the district include shisham (Dalbergio sissoo), kikar (Acacia Arabica) mulberry (Morus alba), mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), sufaida (Eucalyptus globules), bohar or banyan (Ficus benghalensis), bakain or dherek (Melia azedarach), lasura (Cordial myxa), ber (Zizyphus maritania), sirin or shirin (Albezzia lebbek), phulai (Acacia modesta), khajoor or dates (Phoenix dactylifera), pipal (Ficus religiosa), paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera), and neem (Azadirachta indica). Common shrubs and herbs include bathu (Chenopodium album L.), lotus or kanwal (Nelumbo nucifera), and bhang (cannabis sativa).

In addition, the flora of the rakhs (forests) also include jand (Prosopis spicigera), karir (Capparis aphylla), vann (Salvadora oleoides), rero or sufaid babul (Acacia leucophloea), farash (Tamarix articulata), and pilchi (Tamarix dioca).

Medicinal plants of the district include (among others) kangi booti (Abutilon indictam Linn.), puthkanda (Achyranthes aspera Linn.), neel kanthi (Ageratum corryzoids Linn.), thoom or wild onion (Allium sativum Linn.), kavar or aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis), desi aak (Calotropis procera), soya/ parsley (Anethum graveolense), and tumba or bitter apple (Citrullus colocynthis).

Fauna

The only wildlife found in the district is confined to the Bajwat Wildlife Sanctuary and the 5 mile Border Strip along the Indo-Pak Border. In these two tracts, hedgehog, rhesus monkeys, jackals, jungle cats, small Indian mongoose, common Indian mongoose, hog deer, Indian hare, pigs/ wild boar, striped palm squirrel, porcupine, mole rat, nil gai, and wolf are seen and protected.

Reptiles include lizards and snakes, and amphibians include various kinds of turtles, frogs, and toads.

Common species of birds include the common house sparrow, crow, pigeon, starling, weaver bird, parrot, quail, humming bird, babbler, bulbul, cuckoo, hoopoe, parrots, Indian roller, and common kite, as well as some water birds like pintail, mallard, and teal.

Aquatic life in and around Marala Headworks includes bar-headed geese, grey-leg geese, shelducks, mallards, spoonbill, black storks, common cranes, Eurasian bitterns, pallas gull, marsh harrier, and hen harrier, among others. Rohu, and carp fish are the most common fish species.

Protected Wildlife Areas; Endangered Fauna

Following are the Wildlife Protected Areas of the district:

  • Bajwat Game Reserve is the main Wildlife Protected Area in Sialkot district. This sanctuary includes a complex of natural riverine habitats along the Chenab River and two of its tributaries, extending up to the border with India with a total area of 5,400 HA providing protection to waterfowl, as well as a variety of mammals including hog deer and nil gai. This game reserve also protects black partridges, quails, eagles, wolves, hog deer, otter, fishing cat, and the mongoose
  • Part of the 5 Mile Border Strip at the Indo-Pak Border provides sanctuary to a large number of birds and mammals like the jungle cat, rhesus monkeys, hog deer, and the hedgehog. Protected birds include game birds like quails, and black and grey partridges. Some important birds found in this strip include moorhens, shelducks, doves, coots, stilts, mallards, herons, shovelors, widgeons, falcons, owls, pea fowls, moorhens, lapwings, pigeons, night jars, and martins