Punjab-Lodhran

Introduction

District Lodhran is located in the southern region of Punjab, on the northern side of River Sutlej. The district is situated between 71° 23′ to 72° 11′ east longitudes and 29° 21′ to 29° 55′ north latitudes, at an elevation of 184.4 m (605 ft) above sea level. It is bounded on the north by the districts of Multan, Khanewal, and Vehari; on the south by Bahawalpur district; on the east by the districts of Vehari and Bahawalpur; and on the west by the district of Multan.

District at a Glance

Name of District Lodhran District
District Headquarter Lodhran City
Population[1] 1,700,620 persons
Area[2] 2,778 km2
Population Density[3] 638.9 persons/ km2
Population Growth Rate[4] 1.98%
Male Population[5] 50.7%
Female Population[6] 49.3%
Urban Population[7] 15.6%
Tehsils 03 tehsils:

1.    Lodhran Tehsil

2.    Dunyapur Tehsil

3.    Kahror Pacca Tehsil

Main Towns Lodhran, Dunyapur, Kahror Pacca, Qutabpur, Gogran, Dhanot, Rajapur, Dakhano Gharo, Chowki Masti Khan, Borhanpur, Amirpur Sadat, Fatehpur Makhdoom Ali, Jalla Arain, Bahawal Garh, Basti Pacca, Alipur Kanju, Amirpur, Rukanpur, Qadirpur Chimna, Layyalpur, Chelawahin, Adamwahim, and Danwaran
Literacy Rate[8] 53%
Male Literacy Rate[9] 65%
Female Literacy Rate[10] 40%
Major Economic Activity[11] Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing etc. 61.8%
Construction 21.6%
Community, Social & Personal Services 8.1%
Wholesale/ Retail Trade, Restaurant/ Hotel 5.5%
Others 3.0%
Main Crops Cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, sunflower, tobacco, bajra, moong, masoor, maash, rapeseed & mustard, jowar, maize, groundnut, sesanum, sugarbeet, guarseed, linseed, sunn hemp, and fodder
Major Fruits Citrus, mango, banana, guava, pomegranate, dates, jaamun, phalsa, ber, and mulberry
Major Vegetables Chilies, onion, potatoes, tomatoes, garlic, peas, cauliflower, okra, cabbage, radish, carrots, spinach, and turnips
Forests (area)[12] 1,000 HA[13]
Total Black Topped Roads[14] 1,060.7 km
National Highways[15] 64.0 km
Motorways[16] – km
Provincial Roads[17] 996.7 km
Sugar Cess Roads[18] – km
No. of Grid Stations[19] 03 grid stations, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV
No. of Tel. Exchanges[20] 20 telephone exchanges, ranging in capacity from 300 lines to 3,450 lines
Industrial Zones[21] No industrial estate, but there are 94 large, medium, and small enterprises in the district
Major Industry[22] Cement products 1 Unit
Cotton Ginning & Pressing 67 Units
Flour Mills 14 Units
Vegetable Ghee/Oil 3 Units
Cold storage 2 Units
Textile Spinning, Solvent Oil Extraction 2 Units each
Rice Mills 3 Units
Household Size[23] 7.3 persons per house
Houses with Piped Water Inside[24] 13.3%
Houses with Electricity[25] 52%

Table 1.1 Lodhran District at a Glance

[1] 2017 Census

[2] 1998 Census

[3] 2017 Census

[4] 2017 Census

[5] 2017 Census

[6] 2017 Census

[7] 2017 Census

[8] Pakistan Social & Living Measurement Survey 2014-15 (PSLM); latest available.

[9] PSLM

[10] PSLM

[11] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[12] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[13] Land Utilization Statistics reports 1,000 HA under Forests.

[14] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[15] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[16] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[17] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[18] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[19] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Lodhran District 2012; latest available.

[20] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Lodhran District 2012; latest available.

[21] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Lodhran District 2012; latest available.

[22] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Lodhran District 2012; latest available.

[23] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[24] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[25] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Brief HistoryGovernmental StructureAdministrative DivisionsHeritage/ Historical Buildings, and Tourist Attractions

Brief History

The areas belonging to Lodhran district remained a part of Multan district as a tehsil till 1991, when it was upgraded to a district level. As such, the district shares its early history with that of Multan, which has been described in detail in the chapter on Multan. Here, only the history of Lodhran town and Kahror Pacca tehsil is being included.

Lodhran town was founded in the 18th century by the chief of the Lodhra tribe. According to some local traditions, Raja Lodhra and his family, as well as his followers, lived in Bahawalpur till 1743 AD, when they all migrated to the Lodhran region, and made the tract between the River Sultej and River Beas their home. Raja Lodhra was the son of the Sikh Raja, Ram Dyo Minhas, who, in turn, claims descent from the Suryavanshi Rajputs, the descendants of the Solar Deity. The area, thus, came to be known as Lodhar Wah. This name was later changed to Lodhran by the Zaildar[1] of the region, Charagh Ganman Khan of the Lodhra tribe in 1873. At that time, Lodhran and its suburbs were a tehsil of Multan district. In 1924, the areas of Kahror Pacca and Dunyapur were separated from Tehsil Mailsi[2] which was also part of Multan district, and the areas are now included in tehsil Lodhran.[3]

Kahror Pacca town is the oldest town of Lodhran district. The Imperial Gazetteer of India states:

’Kahror Pacca’ town is located on the old bed of River Beas known as Bhattiari Nullah. The town is said to have been founded by Kailun, Chief of Jaisalmer, at the end of fourteenth century; its identification with the Karur where Vikramaditya is said to have defeated the White Huns is extremely doubtful. The most remarkable building in the town is the Shrine of Ali Sarwar, a Sayyed of Delhi who came to Kahror in 1204. (v. 14, p. 273)

There is historical evidence that shows that Kahror Pacca town was captured by Alexander the Great (its Greek name is thought to have been Panta Grama), and later it was part of first the Mauryan Empire (322-185 BC), then the Indo-Greeks (250-125 BC), Indo Scythian (or the Sakas, from the middle of the 2nd century BC to 1st century BC), Indo Parthian Kingdom (20 AD to 250 AD), Kushan Dynasty (60-375 AD), White Huns (455 AD-533 AD), Kabul Shahis (500 AD-1020/ 1026 AD), and the Delhi Sultanate.[4]

The Multan District Gazetteer states that

The Joyas hold most of the land along the Sutlaj in Mailsi Tehsil…They say that eight hundred years ago two brothers Rai Jalal-ud-din and Rai Kamal–ud-din as well as Fateh Khan were sent by the Delhi Emperor against Khar, a Bhatti Chief then ruling Kahror, and after defeating Khar they held his land in farm from the Delhi Sovereign. There is reason to believe that this Khar or Kahr lived not earlier than fourteenth century…Jalal-ud-din stayed on in Kahror where as Fateh Khan settled in Fatehpur. (1923-25, p.97)

During the Delhi Sultanate, Razia Sultana, who ruled from Delhi from 1236 to 1240, attacked Multan in 1239 and conquered it. She stayed at Kahror Pacca and constructed a mosque. This mosque was used as an Eid Gah[5] for some time, but, at present this mosque is in a dilapidated state. Some recent excavations have revealed some inscriptions which prove that Razia Sultana constructed this mosque.[6]

The Langah family ruled Multan from 1445 to 1540. During their rule, many forts were built in the entire state of Multan for its defense against invaders. Later Multan district including areas belonging to Mailsi tehsil and Lodhran tehsil were under Mughal Rule. It was during the rule of Mughal Emperor Babar that the two brothers Rai Kamal-ud-Din and Rai Jalal-ud-Din were sent to Kahror. During the declining years of the Delhi Empire, Sikh power gained strength and most of Punjab, Peshawar, and Kashmir came under Sikh rule. The Second Sikh War, between the British and the Sikh rulers of Punjab, ended Sikh supremacy in 1849, when Punjab was annexed by the British.

At that time, Multan consisted of 4 parganas/ tehsils: Multan, Shujaabad, Mailsi, and Serai Siddhu. Lodhran was made a tehsil of Multan district in 1883 and in 1924 Kahror Pacca and Dunyapur were made a part of Lodhran tehsil. These areas (Kahror Pacca and Dunyapur) had been a part of Mailsi tehsil (which is now in Vehari district).

Lodhran city was first developed by the British rulers during the 18th Century on the northern side of River Sutlej. Lodhran was a desolate place but a cultivable and level tract of land. In 1920, the British Government began initiatives to encourage the local population to settle in the area which included the division of landed estates among people of other areas who migrated to the region to settle, as well as the institution of the Fauji Grant and Tube Well scheme to persuade people to live in the newly built Lodhran city.

Lodhran tehsil was given the status of a district in 1991, with Lodhran, Dunyapur, and Kahror Pacca as its tehsils.

Lodhran district is home to shrines of some ancient saints, the most notable of which are Sultan Ayub Qutub, Pir Jewan Sultan, and Pir Syed Imam Shah. These shrines attract a large number of devotees each year from all over the country.

Governmental Structure

At the Federal level, Lodhran district is allocated a set number of representatives in both the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly:

  • Number of seats in the National Assembly 2
  • Number of seats in the Provincial Assembly 5

Under the Local Government and Community Development Lodhran District has 1 District Council and 3 Municipal Committees as follows:

  • Lodhran
  • Dunyapur
  • Kahror Pacca

Administrative Divisions

The total area of the district is 2,778 km2. It is divided into 3 tehsils as follows:

Lodhran Tehsil 28 Union Councils
Dunyapur Tehsil 33 Union Councils
Kahror Pacca Tehsil 34 Union Councils

Table 1.2 Lodhran Administrative Divisions

[1] Zaildar was a feudal title, and the bearer of the title was the grand jagirdar (landowner) of the area, in charge of a Zail in the colonial rural administration of Punjab in British India. Each Zail was an administrative unit, extending over 40 to 100 villages. The Zaildar had the power to control all of the area that was under the government.

[2] Tehsil Mailsi is, at present, part of Vehari District.

[3] Official website of Lodran District Government

[4] Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based in Delhi. This Sultanate consisted of 5 dynasties: Mamluks (1206-90), Khiljis (1290-1320), Tughlaq (1320-141414), Sayyid (1414-51), and Lodhis (1451-1526)

[5] An Eid Gah is an open air enclosure big enough to accommodate a large group of Muslims who congregate from varying neighborhood for Eid prayers.

[6] A Political Scenario of Kahror Pacca; 1998-1999 a Research Thesis for M.Phil, Islamia University of Bahawalpur. Session 2011-2013 by Ahmad Ali

Heritage/ Historical Buildings, and Tourist Attractions

Some of the government protected areas include heritage sites and shrines, as follows:

  • Old Mosque at Basti Hasil Wali, Lodhran Tehsil (protected)
  • Old Mosque near Bela Wagha, Lodhran Tehsil (protected)
  • Tomb of Hazrat Handira Pir, Kahror Pacca (protected)
  • Old Mosque at Basti Mansoor Shah Wali, Lodhran Tehsil (protected)
  • Mosque at Basti Zirakhwah, Lodhran Tehsil (protected)
  • Tomb of Hazrat Sheikh Ahmad Kabir at Dhanat, Lodhran Tehsil (protected)
  • Ruins of an old mosque, near tomb of Hazrat Sheikh Ahmad Pir at Dhanat, Lodhran Tehsil (protected)

Other places of interest (not protected) include:

  • Mari Mandir Danwaran: Built by Shargar in 1880, this Hindu temple in Lodhran city is now overseen by the Auqaf Department
  • Ruins of Adam Wahan Temple: Only one minaret of this temple is left. It was constructed about 300 years ago. It housed the statues of Ram Chander, Seeta (Sita), Lakshmi, and Krishan. When Hindus of the region left (at the time of Partition) they also took the statues with them
  • Mandir Sanatam Dharam: This was constructed in the 1930s and is the largest Hindu Temple in Kahror Pacca, with the building still intact
  • Machli Mahal: Constructed in 1738 by Makhdoom Muhammad Hamid Ganj Baksh, this was the residency of tehsildars during British rule. Now it is overseen by the Auqaf Department
  • Mandir Gossam Lal Das: This temple is located in Kahror Pacca
  • Mari Mandir: This temple is located in Dunyapur town
  • Shrine of Sultan Ayub Qataal
  • Shrine of Pir Jewan Sultan
  • Shrine of Pir Syed Imam Shah

Some of the forts in the district include Talwara Fort, Tewat Fort, Malik Wahan Fort, Chamb Kalyar Fort, Khanpur Kuhna Fort, Manglotabad, and Nasiruddin Fort.

Figure 1.9 Hafeez Abdul Kareem Masjid, Lodhran

Figure 1.10 Gossam Lal Das Temple; Kahror Pacca

Topography

The entire district is a smooth plain. Kahror Pacca tehsil is the only area which is located on undulating land and, hence, is more picturesque than the other areas of the district. The district has a mild slope towards the south.

Rivers, Streams, and Lakes

River Sutlej flows on the southern side of the district, and is the only river. Bhatari Nullah (or stream) is an intermittent stream flowing in the district. The other sources of surface water are various canals dug during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Forests

The forests of the district were either Tropical Thorn Forests or Tropical Sandy Thorn Forests but most of these forests have been cleared to make way for agriculture. Main species of trees grown in the current forests of the district are kikar (Acacia nilotica), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis; an exotic species), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), semul (Bombax ceiba), bakain/ dharek (Melia Azedarac), jaamun (Syzigium cumim), sukh chain (Pongamia glabra), mulberry (Morus alba), ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) and khajoor or date (Phoenix dactylifera).

The following table shows the total forest area under various departments in Lodhran district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Forest Area 1,843 HA Reserved Forests (GoPunjab) 1,843 HA
District Govt. – HA Reserved Forests – HA
Linear Plantation – km

Table 1.3 Lodhran Forest Statistics

Miranpur Plantation is the only forest of the district.

Soils

The soil is mostly of alluvial character and sand is found within a few feet below the surface. Scattered sand dunes and earth heaps (due to the now dry Beas River, which changed course, leaving a dry and sandy riverbed in the region) are also found on the surface; these are mainly deposited by water and wind.

The whole district has been brought under cultivation through canals and tube wells.

Climate

The climate of the district is hot and dry in summer, and cold in winter. The summer season begins in April and continues till October. The hottest months are May, June, and July. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 42 °C and 28 °C respectively during the summer months. The coldest months are December, January, and February. During this period, the temperature fluctuates between 21 °C and 5 °C. The excessive heat and dust of the district are proverbial. Frequent dust storms are one of the main characteristics of the district, but the frequency of these storms has diminished to a great extent due to extensive cultivation in the region.

The average rainfall in the district is 71 mm.

Seismic Activity

The district belongs to Zone 2A of the Seismic Zone Map of Pakistan which means minor to no damage due to earthquakes.

Population

Population figures for Lodhran district as per the 2017 Census are as follows:

Name Area km2 Population Male% Female% Urban% Growth Rate %
Lodhran district 2,778 1,700,620 50.7 49.3 15.6 1.98
Kahror Pakka Tehsil 778 500,939
Dunyapur Tehsil 889 495,013
Lodhran Tehsil 1,111 704,668

Table 1.4 Lodhran Population Statistics

Religions[1]

Muslims 99.4%
Christians 0.3%
Hindus Negligible %
Ahmadis 0.1%
Scheduled Castes Negligible %
Others 0.2%

Table 1.5 Lodhran Religious Distribution

Languages[2]

Urdu 9.1%
Punjabi 18.6%
Sindhi 0.1%
Pushto 0.2%
Balochi Negligible %
Seraiki 69.6%
Others 2.4%

Table 1.6 Lodhran Languages

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

[2] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Economic ActivityEconomic Infrastructure

Economic Activity

The economy of the district is based on agriculture and its allied livestock breeding. The major industrial occupations[1] of the district are:

  • Agriculture with its Allied Livestock Breeding & Fishing etc. (61.8%)
  • Construction (21.6%)
  • Community, Social & Personal Services (8.1%)
  • Wholesale/ Retail Trade, Restaurant/ Hotel (5.5%)
  • Others (3.0%)

[1] 1998 Census; 2017 Census data has not been made public yet.

Land Use

The land use statistics of Lodhran district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 are shown in the following table:

Total Area 277,800 HA Reported Area 280,000 HA
Total Cultivated Area 245,000 HA Net Sown 233,000 HA
Current Fallow 12,000 HA Total Uncultivated Area 35,000 HA
Culturable Waste 7,000 HA Forest Area 1,000 HA

Table 1.7 Lodhran Land Use Statistics

Agriculture

Agriculture and its allied livestock breeding is the main occupation of the rural areas of the district. The district belongs to the Northern Irrigated Plains Agro-Ecological Zone of Pakistan. Cotton, wheat, rice, sunflower, sugarcane, tobacco, bajra, moong, masoor, maash, rapeseed & mustard, jowar, maize, groundnut, sesanum, sugarbeet, guarseed, linseed, sunn hemp, and fodder are among the main crops of the district.

Major fruits of the district include citrus, mango, banana, guava, pomegranate, dates, jaamun, phalsa, ber, and mulberry.

Major vegetables are turnip, carrots, radishes, chilies, onion, potatoes, tomatoes, garlic, peas, cauliflower, and okra.

Figure 1.3 Farmland in Lodhran district

Livestock Breeding

Livestock breeding is an important economic activity of the district. The following table shows the livestock statistics of Lodhran district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Cattle 489,000 Heads Buffaloes 264,000 Heads Sheep 39,000 Heads
Goats 489,000 Heads Camels 233 Heads Horses 1,169 Heads
Mules 241 Heads Asses 4,247 Heads

Table 1.8 Lodhran Livestock Statistics

Sahiwal cow, nili ravi buffaloes, thali sheep, beetal, and beetal-spotted goats, daira din panah goats, and nachi goats are all indigenous breeds of Multan district, and have been taken as indigenous to Lodhran, as Lodhran district was originally part of Multan.

Poultry

Table 17 (Number of Commercial Poultry Farms and Number of Birds by Size of Flock) indicates that, in total, there are 373 poultry farms in the district. According to Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19 number of privately owned poultry farms in the District include 162 broiler and 114 layer poultry farms.

Fishing

Fishing is carried out in River Sutlej in Lodhran[1] and other small waterbodies in the district. This fish is consumed locally.

Bee Keeping/ Apiculture

In Pakistan, honey bee colonies were introduced in the 1980s, and since then more than 300,000 honey bee colonies have been successfully established in Pakistan, including the Lodhran district.

[1] Manual of Fish by Fisheries Department GoPunjab

Irrigation

Lodhran district is irrigated by 2 canals: the Qutabpur Canal (Perennial) and the Mailsi Canal (Non-Perennial). There are 4 canal subdivisions:

  • Qutabpur Subdivision at Qutabpur
  • Lodhran Subdivision at Lodhran
  • Mahmood Subdivision at Lodhran
  • Manjha Kotla Subdivision at Kahror Pacca

The following table shows the mode of irrigation and the area irrigated by each mode as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Area Sown 459,000 HA Irrigated Area 459,000 HA
Un-Irrigated Area – HA Canal Irrigated 36,000 HA
Dug Wells 8,000 HA Tube Well Irrigated 22,000 HA
Canal Well Irrigated 5,000 HA Canal Tube Wells 387,000 HA
Others 1,000 HA

Table 1.11 Lodhran Irrigation Statistics

Minerals and Mining

Minerals are not being mined in the district, however, Petroleum exploration is being undertaken.

Industry

There is no industrial estate in Lodhran district. There are a total of 94 small, medium, and large[1] sized industrial units in the district. The following table shows the statistics of existing industry in Lodhran:

Type of Industry Number of Units Type of Industry Number of Units
Cement Products 01 Cold Storage 02
Cotton Ginning &P ressing 67 Flour Mills 14
Vegetable Ghee/ Oil 03 Poultry Feed (Closed) 01
Rice Mills 03 Solvent Extraction 02
Textile Spinning 02

Table 1.9 Lodhran Industries

Trade

The district has an agricultural economy and, hence, trades mainly in agricultural produce.

Handicrafts

Lodhran is famous for its cottage industry of printed bed sheets and embroidered shoes.

[1] Directorate of Industries Punjab- Pre-Investment Study Lodhran District 2012; Latest available.

 

Economic Infrastructure

There is a network of intercity roads in the district, connecting all tehsil headquarters and towns. Lodhran is also linked with other parts of the country by black topped roads. The district is linked to Karachi, Multan, Bahawalpur, Peshawar, and Khanewal with black topped roads. The main Peshawar–Karachi railway line passes through Lodhran district. Lodhran, Jahania, Dunyapur, and Kahror Pacca are the major railway stations in the district. Lodhran district is linked with Khanewal, Multan, Bahawalpur, and Vehari districts through the railway network.

Figure 1.11 A Village Scene in Lodhran

Roads

The following table shows the road statistics of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Total Road Length 1,060.7 km
National Highways 64.0 km
Provincial Highways 996.7 km
Motorways – km
Sugar Cess Roads – km

Table 1.10 Lodhran Road Statistics

Some of the important roads of the district are:

  • Lodhran-Bahawalpur Road
  • Lodhran-Multan Road
  • Lodhran-Jalalpur Road
  • Lodhran-Shujaabad Road
  • National Highway N 5 connecting Punjab and Sindh

Rail and Airways

The main Peshawar–Karachi railway line passes through the city and it is one of the more important railway stations on this route. The district headquarter (Lodhran city) is linked with its tehsil headquarters through a railway line. The district is also linked with Khanewal, Bahawalpur, and Vehari districts through the Pakistan Railway Network. Lodhran is connected to other areas through the Bahawalpur-Sama Sata to Karachi Railway line, the Kahror Pacca-Kasur-Lahore Railway line, Dunyapur–Khanewal–Lahore Railway line, and the Shujaabad–Multan Railway line. Lodhran tehsil is home to 5 railway stations;[1] Kahror Pacca has 2, railway stations, and Dunyapur has 3.

Lodhran district is not connected directly to other parts of the country by air, and the nearest airports are Bahawalpur Airport (19 km east of Lodhran) and Multan Airport (40 km west of Lodhran).

Radio and Television

There is a private FM radio station in Lodhran district. Even though there is no TV station in the district, TV can be viewed through cable.

Telecommunications

Pakistan Telecommunications Ltd. has established a network of telephone lines. In all, there are 20 telephone exchanges[2] operating in the district, ranging in capacity from 300 lines to 3,450 lines. In addition, a number of cellular companies also provide their services in the district.

Post Offices/ Courier Services

There are 71 offices[3] of Pakistan Post in the district, with 33 offices in Lodhran tehsil, 20 in Kahror Pacca tehsil and 18 in Dunyapur tehsil.

Banking/ Financial Institutions

There are 33 branches[4] of various banks in the district, with 17 in Lodhran tehsil, 10 in Kahror Pacca tehsil and 6 in Dunyapur tehsil.

According to the List of Reporting Bank Branches 2019 by State Bank of Pakistan the following banks have their branches in the district:

  • Allied Bank Ltd.
  • Bank Alfalah Ltd.
  • Habib Bank Ltd.
  • Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.
  • Meezan Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
  • Soneri Bank Ltd.
  • Bank of Punjab Ltd.
  • The Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd.
  • United Bank Ltd.
  • Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd.
  • National Bank of Pakistan Ltd.

In all there are 50 branches of various conventional banks and 05 branches of different Islamic banks in the District.

Electricity and Gas

The district is served by Multan Electric Power Company (MEPCO). There are 3 grid stations[5] in the district, ranging in capacity from 66 KV to 132 KV.

Gas connections for residential purposes are available in Lodhran tehsil.

[1] Directorate of Industries Punjab, Pre-investment study Lodhran District 2012; Latest available.

[2] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-investment Study Lodhran District 2012; Latest available.

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-investment Study Lodhran District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-investment Study Lodhran District 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Lodhran District 2012; Latest available.

Education

The following table shows the details of the educational facilities of the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution Boys/Girls Institution Boys/Girls
Primary Schools 224/350 Middle Schools 69/82
Secondary Schools 58/37 Higher Secondary 15/15
Degree Colleges 11/07 Other Higher Secondary[1] 02/01
Other Degree Colleges[2] 08/05 Technical Training Institutes[3] 02/01
Vocational Institutes[4] -/02 Commercial Training Institutes[5] 01/-
Universities[6] Govt. Mosque Schools -/-
Medical Schools[7] Engineering Schools[8]

Table 1.12 Lodhran Educational Istitutions

There are a large number of private schools and colleges in the district.

Figure 1.9 A Girls’ School, Lodhran

Figure 1.10 Jamia Ghousia (Madrassah), Lodhran

Health

The District Health Officer (DHO) is overall in charge of health services provided in the district. The DHO is supported by doctors, paramedics, technicians, and other support staff. The following table shows the number of health care institutions in the district as per Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19:

Institution No./Beds Institution No./Beds
Government Hospitals 04/217 Dispensaries 16/12
Rural Health Centers 03/80 Basic Health Units 48/96
T B Clinics -/- Mother Child Health Centers 01/02
Private Hospitals -/- Sub-Health Centers -/-
Private Health Care Providers[9] 41/NA

Table 1.13 Lodhran Health Institutions

Figure 1.11 Kamal Private Hospital, Lodhran

Policing

Deputy Inspector General Police looks after the Multan region which comprises of Multan, Vehari, Khanewal, and Lodhran districts. Lodhran district is further subdivided into 3 subdivisions, with 10 police stations.[10] The police force in each region is headed by a District Police Officer, who is assisted by a varying number of Superintendents and Deputy Superintendents of Police.

[1] Includes Private, Federal and other Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[2] Includes Private, Federal and other Schools owned by PAF and other organizations

[3] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Lodhran District 2012; Latest available.

[4] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Lodhran District 2012; Latest available.

[5] Directorate of Industries, Punjab. Pre-Investment Study Lodhran District 2012; Latest available.

[6] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[7] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[8] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

[9] Three Years Rolling Plan District Lodhran (No. of Beds not available)

[10] Punjab Development Statistics 2018-19

Environment and Biodiversity

The major air quality issue is Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) due to gaseous emission from vehicles. A lot of dust accumulates in the air due to the district’s dry atmosphere. Since the industrial base of the district is not significant, the physical environment of the area is good.

Flora and Fauna

Flora

Historically, Lodhran district was under the Tropical Thorn Forest and Tropical Sandy Thorn Forest Zone, but this has been cleared after the introduction of the irrigation system in the Indus Flood Plains. Kikar (Acacia nilotica), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, an exotic species), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), semul (Bombax ceiba), bakain/ dharek (Melia Azedarac), jaamun (Syzigium cumim), sukh chain (Pongamia glabra), mulberry (Morus alba), ber (Ziziphus mauritiana), and khajoor or date (Phoenix dactylifera) are the common trees found in Lodhran.Roadside plantations include kikar/farash (Tamarix aphylla), eucalyptus and the occasional, ornamental, bohr (Ficus bengalensis), as well as neem (Azadiracta indica), siris, ber, and bakain, which are commonly planted at farm houses. Natural vegetation like karir (Capparis aphyla), aak (Calotropis procera), kana (Saccharum bengalensis), khabbal (Cynodon dactylon), lamb (Aristida depressa), gorkha (Lasiurus sindicus), and mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) has invaded many open areas. Koondar (Typha angustata) grows along water ponds and wet places.

Fauna

Mammals indigenous to the region have been eradicated with the removal of natural Tropical Thorn Forests, and only the species associated with agricultural crops remain in the area, which include jackal, mongoose, jungle cat, hedgehog, and five-striped palm squirrel. Porcupine is also common. Small mammals including bandicoot or Indian mole rat, soft furred rat, field mouse, Indian gerbil, and house shrew are common pests of agricultural crops.Because of intensive agriculture, pesticide use is a common practice, which has had an adverse impact on the bird populations; black and grey partridges are the worst casualties, as they are also hunted and captured to be kept as pets. Bird species common in the area are cattle egret, pond heron, common and bank myna, red-vented bulbul, jungle babbler, Blyth’s reed warbler, Indian great reed warbler, black kite, black shouldered kite, koel, black drongo or king crow, common crow, and house sparrow. Common quails visit the area during their spring and winter migrations.Cobra, saw-scale viper, du-muhi and striped keelback are known to occur in the area, and the house gecko is also common. Common tree lizard may be found in orchards, while the monitor lizard, and fat-tailed lizard occur in open areas. Two species of fresh water turtles¾Indian soft-shell and Indian flapshell¾have been reported. They are usually present near ponds, canals, and in fields during the wet season.Three species of amphibians have been found: Bullfrog, pahari tidda maindak, and Indus valley toad.

Figure 1.5 Banyan Tree/ Bohr (Ficus bengalensis)

Figure 1.6 Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa)

Protected Wildlife Areas and Endangered Species

The only protected wildlife area in the district is the Miranpur Irrigated Plantation. This plantation offers protection to the mongoose, and the jungle cat, among others.